KPK Board 12th class Chemistry Ch 18 Alcohol, Phenols and Ethers questions answers
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Hydroxyl group –OH is a functional group of alcohol. The general formula of alcohol is R-OH or CnH2n+1OH
Whereas –OH is functional group.
- Lower alcohol is color less toxic liquids.
- They have characteristic smell.
- They have high boiling point then those of corresponding molecules.
- Lower alcohols are completely water soluble.
Locus test is one of the tests used for the identification of primary, secondary and tertiary alcohols. In this test alcohol are treated with concentrated HCl in anhydrous ZnCl2 and as result of oily layer of alkyle halide is formed.
Tertiary alcohols immediately react with reagent and form the oily layer.
Secondry alcohols react moderately and form the oily layer in five to ten mints.
Primary alcohols react vary slowly and form an oily layer on heating.
Phenols are acidic in nature and react with NaOH or Na matel to from salt.
C6H5-OH + NaOH à C6H5-O–Na+ + H2O
Ans. Monohydric alcohols are classified as primary, secondary and tertiary depending upon whether the hydroxide group is attach to a primary, secondary and tertiary carbon atom in the molecule.
Alcohol is easily promoted as compare to phenol because alcohols behaves as weak Lewis bases due to unshared pair of electrons on oxygen atom and are available for easily protonation where as in case of phenol the lone pair of electron on oxygen atom are not available for protonation because they are in conjugation with benzene ring due to which it can’t be available for protonation.
|They are less acidic in nature and do not react with NaOH.||They are more acidic in nature and react with NaOH to form salt|
|They are miscible with water.||They are partially miscible with water.|
|They form nearly natural solution in water.||They form weakly acidic solution in water.|
|They react with organic acids to form ester.||They do not react with organic acids.|
- Dimethyl ether and ethyl methyl ether or gases at STP. While other are color less volatile liquids.
- Ethers are highly inflammables.
- They have lower boiling points then alcohols of comparable molecule weight.
- Lower ethers are soluble in water due to the formation of hydrogen bonding.
- Ethers are generally less denser then water.
- They are readily soluble in organic solvent.