KPK Board 12th class Chemistry Ch 17 Alkyl Halides short questions answers

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Malakand Board 12th classes short questions Answer

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What is the importance of Grignard reagent?
Importance of Grignard Reagent: Grignard Reagent is one of the most important compounds in organic synthetic chemistry. This compound is used as starting material for large variety of organic compounds like, alcohols, aldehydes, ketones carboxylic acids esters etc.
Compare nuclephilic subsititution reaction And reaction and electrophilic substitution reaction

Nucleophilic Substitution Reactions Electrophilic Substitution Reactions
Reactions in in which a nucleophile is replaced another nucleophile. Reactions by which an electrophile is replaced by another electrophile.
They are represented as SN reactions. They are represented as ES reactions.
They are characteristic hydrocarbons i.e. alkyl halides alcohols etc. They are characteristic reactions of aliphatic reactions of aromatic hydrocarbons.
A strong nucleophile replaces a weak nucleophile. A strong electrophile replaces a weak nucleophile.
Depend upon nature of solvent. Does not depend upon nature solvent.

Why tertiary carbocation is more stable?
The tertiary carbocation is more stable than the secondary carbocation, which is turn is more stable than primary carbocation. This is a order of stability of carbocation. It is because in these ions the positive charge is stabilized by electron donating alkyl group which are attached directly to positive charged carbon atom. Greater the number of alkyl group, is greater the stability of the carbocation.
In reaction between chloroethane and aqueous sodium hydroxide identify the attacking nucleophile and atom in the chloroethane molecule being attacked.
CH3-CH2-CI + NaOH à CH3-CH2-OH + NaCl

Nucleophile: OH group of NaOH

Molecule attacked = CH3-CH2-Cl OH ions will attack carbon atom bearing halogen atom i.e. leaving group.

What is the importance of diazonium salt?
Importance of Diazonium Salt: Diazonium salt is the most important synthetic material use in the formation of large number of organic compounds. The most important compounds of diazonium salts are azo dyes. Which are often used as dyes e.g. methyl organic is an azo dye which is used in the laboratory as pH indicator. Diazonium compounds are standard reagent and are light sensitive and break down under near UV or violet light. This property has led to their use in document reproduction.
Define the following terms.

  1. substrates
  2. leaving group
  3. carbocation
Substrates: The molecules which are undergo nucleophilic substitution reaction is called substrate.

Leaving group: The group or specie which leaves the substrate or which is being replaced by the incoming entering group.

Carbocation: When a halogen atom of alkyl halide detached it form the ions substrate, these ion substrate is positive charge and negative charge species. The ion which contains the positive charged carbon atom is called carbocation.


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