KPK Board 12th class Chemistry Ch 14 D and F Block Elements short questions answers

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What is the meant by the term ‘’ transition elements ‘’?
Transition elements: Elements having d-or f orbitals in the process of completion are called transition elements.
Write down the electronic configuration f first transition series?
It is the series in which 3d orbital is in the process of completion. This series included following elements.

Scandium

Symbol Na

Atomic No: 21

Electronic configuration: 1s2, 2s2, 2p6, 3s2, 3p6, 4s2, 3d1.

Commium on the electronic configuration of chromium and copper?
Chromium (Cr24) electronic configuration is: 1s2, 2s2, 2p6, 3s2, 3p6, 4s2, and 3d 4.

Copper (Cu29) electronic configuration is: 1s2, 2s2, 2p6, 3s2, 3p6, and 3d 9.

Explain the catalytic behavior of transition elements?
Many transition elements and their compound act as catalyst both for organic and inorganic reaction.                                                                                                                                                                             Reason: The transition elements have variable oxidation state, which enhances their ability to formation of desired product .These elements also provide surface area for the absorption of gases such as hydrogen.

Example: The transition elements and their compound used in large variety of industrial process.

How coordination compounds are formed in transition elements?
Cations of transition elements are small and they have high charge density. This property makes it easy to make coordination compound. Rather than they have vacant d-orbital’s and these orbital’s have variable oxidation satiate.
Write a short note on variable oxidation state?
Oxidation state or oxidation number is the apparent charge on an atom of an element in a molecule or ion or compound. Transition elements have variable oxidation sates. It is most important property of elements. It is due to they use the outer most electron for bond formation.
What is the oxidation state of Fe in FeCl3?
Oxidation state of Fe (Iron) in ferric chloride (FeCl3 ) is Fe+3.
What is oxidation state of chromium in {Cr(H2O)6}3+
Oxidation state of chromium in [Cr(H2O)6]3+ is +3because H2ois a neutral ligand and it has zero oxidation state therefore the whole charge on the complex ion is because of the chromium metal which is +3oxidation state.
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