KPK Board 12th Class Biology Ch 20 Reproduction Short Questions Answers
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it is a biological process through which organism produce young ones of their own kind it ensure the survival and continuity of species it help the organism to adopt according to new environment.
The Union of male and female gametes to form zygote is called fertilization depending upon the site of gametes Union to fertilization is of two types external fertilization during this the union of male and female gametes takes place outside the body of organism fertilization in amphibian and fish internal fertilization hair the union of male and female gametes takes place inside the body of female parent reptile birds and mammals.
the production of haploid gametes in the sex organ of organism is called the gametogenesis it is two types spermatogenesis it is the formation of male gamete sperm in male sex organ testis oogenesis it is the formation of female gametes over in the female sex organ called ovaries.
The production of sperm in the testis of male is called spermatogenesis sperm are formed in following steps spermatogonia the unit differentiated cells of testis are diploid and called spermatogonia primary spermatocyte mitosis takes place in spermatogonia sum of which form the primary spermatocytes secondary spermatocytes it is found by the process of meiosis in primary spermatid second meiotic division give rise to 4 spermatid .Sperm spermatid develop into motile sperm.
tests to male gonads that are outside the abdominal that produce sperm Vasa efferentia these duct collect the sperm from inside of testis these are highly called the that are responsible for transport and storage of vasa difference it starts from epididymis and join with seminal vesicles urethra it is the terminal portion that opens to interior caring both urine and sperm.
necessary gland of male reproductive system of seminal vesicles and prostate glands bulbul bulbul urethral glands.
seminal vesicles these are cyclic structure attached to Vas difference at one side of bladder functions they produce sticky Yellow fluid that nourish sperm prostate gland it surrounds the ejaculatory duct functions it is responsible for the prove same in a liquid mixture of sperm cells urethral gland also known as cowper’s glands are pea sized gland on side of urethra the fluid of this gland lubricate urethra and neutralize acidity.
It is a white sticky mixture of sperm and secretion of accessory glands liquid that provides nutrients and protection to sperm. These haploid male gametes present in each ml of semen contain 150 and 20 million sperm fertilized and to form zygote that can develop into embryos.
sperm is haploid male gamete it consists of following parts had it contain haploid nuclei acrosome ald her At the upper region of palm head neck it is a short and contain a pair of centrioles with midpiece contain many mitochondria are arranged spirally around it.
these are the female that produce over and hormones location to ovaries are present in human female with in peritoneal cavity the ovaries are almond shaped and 3 and 5 cm long 2 and 3 cm wide of sides these are the imagery eggs in ovary ovarian follicles these are fluid filled rounded structures in ovary they contain a single of side immature egg developed only once in a cycle ovulation in Adult female each month the ripening follicle eject its no side from ovary this is called ovulation.
These are the oviduct of email which receive offsite and are the site of fertilization is oviduct is about 10 cm long. They transport the male sperm to the egg and provide a suitable site and environment for fertilization.
It is a part of the human reproductive system that receives, retains and Naresh a fertilised ovule. It is about the shape and size of an inverted pear. It is Hollow thick walled and composed of three layers.
When fertilization occurs the young embryo takes its root into the inner layer of the uterus this is known as implantation.
the process of egg formation in the female is called oogenesis the diploid stem cell of ovary is called during fetal period the multiplier rapidly by mitosis then gradually it is transformed into primary oocyte surrounded by single layer of polyculture it is surrounded by single layer of follicle cells in primary oocyte first meiotic division take place and become stalled late in prophase 1 and remain in this condition through childhood for 10 and 14 years second meiotic division take place at puberty and divided to form of you are egg.
it is a reproductive cycle of human and other primates it is a series of cyclic changes that the uterine endoderm goes through each month first menstrual cycle start from puberty during this stage uterus shed the deepest part of endometrium duration it is accompanied by bleeding for 3 and 5 days at the beginning of this state the ovarian hormones are at their lowest normal level.
it is a stage of menstrual cycle during which the basal layer of endometrium generates a new functional layer the rising oestrogen level cause it to become thin and crystalline forming channels to facilitate the passage of sperm into uterus in normal menstrual cycle the duration of proliferative phase is they 6 and 14 it is also called the pre ovulatory stage.
it is the stage of menstrual cycle after the process of ovulation during the state the uterus prepare itself for implantation of an embryo progesterone level rises in the stage causing the functional there a glandular secretary layer in case of fertilization fertilization occur the nutrients obtained the embryo and until it has implanted in the blood rich and the Endometrial lining when fertilization occur the Corpus luteum Begins to generate toward the end of secretory phase at the end of this stage and L H blood level decline progesterone level for depriving the endometrium of hormonal sport show the cells die it occur at day 15 and 28 result when of fertilization occur the menstrual flow start at the day 28.
in female the menstrual cycle ceases around 50 years of age and is termed as Menopause it is the permanent cessation of the primary function of ovariesMenopause occurs because of the natural or surgical situation of estradiol and progesterone production by the ovaries this label the women to reproduce it is the end of fertility of women the treatment of Menopause include diet changes medications and exercise.
When a woman is unable to produce offspring this condition is called female infertility following are the main causes of female infertility upset months cycle blocked fallopian tubes due to pelvic inflammation physical problems with uterus uterine fibroids treatment in fertility may be treated with medicines surgery are assisted reproductive Technology.
The woman’s body master releases an egg from the ovary the egg must go through a fallopian tube towards the uterus the egg should receive sperm for fertilization. The fertilized egg must be attached to the inside of the uterus.
When a man is not able to produce offspring this condition is called male infertility varicocele, absent sperm count, sperm damage, some disease, that treatment very according to underlying disease and the degree of impairment of male infertility.
It is the invite of fertilization that takes place outside the body of email it is the most effective type of assisted reproductive Technology it is often used when the women fallopian tubes are blocked. when a man produces too few sperm when a man sperm is unable to reach theova. Doctors treat women with Hormone for production of multiple eggs when eggs are mature they are removed from women eggs are put in a day with a man sperm for fertilization after 3 and 5 days all the embryos then implanted in the woman’s uterus .
there is no room for IVF in Islamic due to following reason it is an unnatural method Allah has ordered and that some couples would beinfertile, hi create that he will, he bestows Male and female children to whom he Wills he bestown both and he leaves Barren and whom he will.
children are not a necessity as food or water.
the principle of Saad AL- dharai States when a means is expected to an unlawful result at that a lawful means which normally leads to Unlawful result is used to produce an unlawful and and then the means it’s as become an unlawful. IVF has the following and unlawful results illegitimate children surrogacy, Commercialization, gender selection, unnecessary body exposure ,unnatural method of obtaining sperm, third party involvement.
It is the spontaneous loss of a foetus before the 20 week of pregnancy.
Causes: chromosomal problems drugs and alcohol environment hormonal problem infection obesity physical problem with mother .
Symptoms: Bleeding from light to heavy sever cramp abdominal pain fever back paindiagnosis pelvic exam and ultrasound are used to confirm miscarriage.
It is the termination of pregnancy by the removal and expulsion of the fetus from the uterus before it is visible. Types: induce, it is normally done to save the mother life,
Spontancous: it is also known as miscarriage.
Surgical: it is done by the 15 weeks gastrulation.
It is a sexually transmitted infection of humans.
Symptoms: urethritis, painful urination, discharge of pus in urine,
In females: abdominal discomfort , vaginal discharge, abnormal uterine bleeding, urethral problems .
Causes: the causative agent is neisseria gonorrhoeae.
Treatment: it can be treated by penicillin, tetracycline, and some other antibiotics.
It is (STD) of humans caused by treponema pallidum.
Symptoms of syphilis depend on its stages.
Primary stage presents a single chancer.
Secondary stage is diffuse rash involving palms and soles.
The Latter stage is with little or no symptoms.
Tertiary stage was neurological or cardiac symptoms.
Transmission: it is primarily by sexual contact.
Prevention: avoid by contact with the infected person.
Treatment: all stages of syphilis are treated with penicillin.
AIDS stands by the acquired immune deficiency syndrome. It is one of the most dangerous and deadly diseases in human history.
First identification: more than 20 years ago, it was identified by a doctor in the United state.
Cause: the causative agent of the aids is (HIV) the human immunodeficiency virus.
HIV+ estimate: now they estimate the 40 million of people living with HIV worldwide.
Mortality: 3 million people die every year from AIDS illnesses.
HIV the human immunodeficiency virus describes the different cells of the body called CD4 helper lymphocytes; it gradually breaks down the body immune system over time so that simplest disease can attack the patient so the chances of infections increases as the body immunity goes down.
HIV the human immunodeficiency virus can be transmitted from one person to another through following waste problem semen in vaginal fluid from breastmilk Immoral sexually behaviour sharing needleless injection are used for tattooing from infected mother to her child.
There is still no cure for HIV and AIDS. Drugs are used to inhibit or to Slow Down its progress, show the paper that HIV can leave much longer if the medicines for HIV are used to decrease the amount of HIV in the body and to the immune system medicine is usually taken for life.
hormones such as testosterone fsh and LH are known to influence the germ cells at the initiation of spermatogenesis occur at puberty due to interaction of the hypothalamus pituitary gland and leydig cells If pituitary gland is removed spermatogenesis can still initiated by follicle-stimulating hormone and testosterone.
Some of the preventive measures against HIV are following public education and awareness hiv-infected percentage should be offered access to screening and treatment Care should be taken in handling use of needless or other sharp items care should be taken during blood transfusion.