KPK Board 12th Class Biology Ch 16 Support and Movement Short Questions Answers
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Sport: the ability of an organism to stand erect is called sport.
Movement: movement is defined as the change of place opposition of a part of organism locomotion: the free body movement of organism is called locomotion during locomotion the body of organism moves from one place to another.
What are the advantages of Skeleton?
a skeleton is a framework of the body around which the body is made. It has the following advantages: it gives shape to the body of the organism; it protects the delicate Parts of the body; it helps in movement.
skeleton depending on the location.
Exoskeleton: it is the framework of the body which is outside the body of organisms it is usually made up of non living material example chitin.
examples of echinoderms mollusks .
Endoskeleton This type of Framework is located inside the body of the organism it is made up of living material bones and cartilage.
examples of Skeleton of vertebrates.
differentiate them into various groups.
At birth the human body consists of 350 bones that fuse and reduce with age. In adults your month there are 206 bones this bones can be differentiated into the following types according to their structure.
small bones ear borne
long bone humerus
flat bone ribs
irregular bones vertebrae
The term access means the central point around which other structures are disturbed the axial skeleton lies and the centre of the body is made up of following parts components: skull vertebral column.
The skull is the first part of the axial skeleton in which the brain is protected and both skull bones are classified into two groups.
cranium consists of eight bones out of them four bones are unpaired which are.
Frontal, occipital, sphenoid, ethmoid
The remaining four are in pair form; these are parietal temporal.
Facial bone these are 14 in number out of which are unpaired.
Remaining 12 are in pair form which are.
maxilla, zygomatic bones, nasal bones, palatin, inferior concha, lockrimal.
Following sketch represents the skull bone.
Cranium, paired, unpaired bones.
Paired bones: parietal, temporal.
Parietal: frontal, occipital, sphenoid, ethmoid.
Facial bones:unpaired ,paired bones.
Unpaired bones: vomer, mendibles.
Paired bones: maxilla, zygomatic, nasal, platine inferior, lacrimal, inferior concha.
A vertebral column also known as backbone or spine is a bony structure found in vertebrates; it is made up of a series extending from neck to tail region. In humans there are 33 vertebrae.
The major functions of spine are protection of the spinal cord providing spot to the body in Standing and walking.
The vertebral column is composed of 33 vertebrae which are named according to their position in the body their classification is following.
cervical present in neck.
thoracic present chest.
lumber present in the back region.
pelvic present between lower Limbs.
Rib cage is a structure made up of 12 rib pairs.
components made up of following components sternum are chest bone, 12 pairs of ribs. .out of these 10 pairs are attached with the sternum remaining two pairs at lower regions are free and are called floating or false ribs .
Importance provided sport to the chest; it protects the delicate organs like heart and lungs.
The arms and legs and shoulders and hips are collectively called appendicular skeleton component appendicular skeleton consists of the following components: pectoral girdle and forelimbs pelvic girdle and Hind limbs.
A pectoral girdle is also known as the shoulder girdle; it is a set of bones that connect the upper Limbs to the axial skeleton on each side.
bones following bonds are present in the pectoral girdle scapula, super scapula, clavicle.
The anterior appendages of an organism are called forelimbs.
bones of forelimbs
2 radius and ulna
It is a set of bones that connect the trunk to the legs.
It consists of coxal bones each of which is formed by the fusion of three bones which of the following.
Ilium, ischium, pubis .
The posterior Limbs of an animal are called its hind Limbs. following bones are present in the hind limbs .Bones
Femur ,5metatarsals, 14 flanges, 8 tarsals, patella or kneecap, fabula.
The human skeleton is made up of two types of material: bones and cartilage.
bones are a type of hardest and rigid connective tissue. Special types of collagen fibres are present in bones hardness is provided to the fibres by the deposition of calcium phosphate.
It is softer than bone. It is connective tissue that covers the ends of bones at joints and also support the flexible parts of the nose and external ear.
Joints: the meeting point of two bones is called joints.
Types: on the basis of extent of movement of joints are of the following three types.
Immovable joint there fixed joint in Skull.
slightly movable joints allow little movement white of vertebrae.
freely movable joints These joints allow free movement and are further of two types.
Hinge joints allow directional movement of the elbow,knee.
ball and socket joints they allow Movement in several directions.
joints are the meeting points of two bones they are important due to following reasons they keep the bone Together by holding them with each other they allow the bones to move to different extent they give mobility to the body of the organism.
bones May fracture due to some accident are carelessness when a bone break the blood vessels around it also Rapture than the broken bone is repaired in following way Hematoma is formed by the blood injury parts of bone release chemical to Form fibroblast cells form a classified and loosely woven bone called callus with the passage of time the callus is observed and the bone become stable the mark of fracture disappear with time.
muscles are special tissue made up of elongated cells that have the ability to contract and expand. Types on the basis of structure and function the muscles are of following types. voluntary muscles involuntary muscles. voluntary muscles these muscles are under the control of well animal skeleton muscle. involuntary muscles these muscles move on. Their own they are not under the value of animals, they are of two types of cardiac muscles: these are the muscles of the heart and do not fatigue its smooth muscles, these are the muscles of the internal organ stomach, intestine.
striated means having strips as a detail structure of the skeletal muscles so that they are formed of two different proteins that appear as light and dark crosswise bands on their fibres so they are called striated. unstriated muscles and unstriated in smooth muscles no light and dark bands are present so they are called non striated or smooth.
tendons are the connective tissue present on the end of muscles and help in attachment of muscles to bones they are inelastic and white in colour tendon can be felt above the heel.
ligaments these connective tissues are present on the joints and hold the bones together; they are flexible and in form bands.
skeletal muscles are attached at two different points. Origin the end of muscles which is attached with a movable bone is called the origin of that muscles example and of muscle attached to shoulder bone.
insertion is the end of muscle attached to a movable muscle example and of muscle attached to radius.
antagonism means opposing the antagonistic muscles of the body work in pair in such a way that when one muscle contract The Other relax extensor the muscles which on contractions straightness are extend olymp is called the extensor muscle of forearm flexor the muscle which on construction band the Limbs is called flexor muscle Bicep of arm.
osteoporosis is a disorder of bones in which the bones become thin and weak cause it mostly occurs in old age treatment it can be treated by using more calcium in diet and regular exercise.
Arthritis is one of the most painful joint diseases in the world and it may be caused by What is osteoarthritis?degeneration of joints, infections of joints, uric acid accumulation, and bacteria.
it is a disorder of joints in which the Synovial membrane is destroyed. Because genetic defects mostly occur in older people during this disorder the cartilage covering
of a joint is completely where living the joint exposes symptoms server plane at joints and difficulty in movement treatment it can be treated by taking aspirin surgery and physiotherapy.
It is an autoimmune disease in which the body immune system attacks its own tissue symptoms the affected joints become swollen it can cause pain stiffness and loss of function mostly hands and feet are affected treatment it can be treated by taking analgesic painKillers and physiotherapy.
it is order of joints that occur due to the position of uric acid crystals in the Synovial cavity causes it is called by increased level of uric acid in the body symptoms in this disease the joints become Red Hot and Cold cause severe pain treatment it can be treated by taking steroid physiotherapy and by reducing weight.
The bodily movement of organisms from one place to another is called locomotion types on the basis of locomotion the organisms are following.
Motile organisms are capable of locomotion animals, non-metallic organisms; these organisms are not capable of locomotion; they are also called sessile organisms plants.
the elbow joint is an example of hinge joints where the moment into direction is allowed well the ball and socket joint have different structure and allow Movement in many directions that is why the elbow joint is different from ball and socket joint.
voluntary muscles their movement is controlled by CNS. they cause movement of limbs and other parts of the body. Their ultrastructure shows light and crosswise bands are mostly attached to the bones.
involuntary muscles are not controlled by CNS they cause movement of heart lungs and digestive tract no such Bond are present in involuntary muscles they are not attached to bones.
These are immature bone cells and eventually become mature bones. they produce a mineralized matrix.
osteocytes are mature bones as they stop the production of mineralized matrix.
fibrous joints in these joints are thin layers of fibrous connective tissue that hold the bones firmly in position and they are generally immovable. their joints provide strength and sports to the body example, bones of Skull.
cartilaginous joints are connected by fibrocartilage and hyaline cartilage joint cavity is absent importance these joint forms of flexible connective so that they allow slightly movement example wrist, ankle.
The discs are protective pads between the bones of the spine when the disc splits that can cause the escape of the Inner gel portion to the surrounding tissues.
Effect of leakage Jelly like substance can place pressure on the spinal cord or adjacent nerve to cause pain the most frequently affected areas lower back but any disk can rupture including the neck.
it is a disorder that causes loss of normal spinal structure and function mostly it is caused by aging affected areas. It can affect the cervical thoracic lumbar region of the spine.
It is a disorder in which pain weaknesses are felt in the leg cast. It is caused by injury or pressure on a selected nerve which starts in the lower spine and runs down the back of each leg. The sciatic nerve is affected by slipped disc piriformis syndrome.
Pelvic injury fracture, tumor. treatment is treated through medicines and is in severe causes through surgery.
fracture is a medical term for broken bone cause a bone is fractured when the physical force extends on the bone so the bone break as it cannot withstand the force applied to it. types structure is of two types simple fracture in this fracture the skin is intact it is also called closed fracture compound fracture in compound fracture the bone penetrates the skin and forms a bone it is also known as an open fracture.
a dislocated joint is a joint that slips out of place during this disorder the ends of both are forced away from their normal position symptoms selling intense pain and mobility of the affected joint.
cause: blow, fall, accident, some diseases are defective ligaments.
Treatment dislocated joints are treated by trained medical professional surgery that may be needed to repair or tighten stretched ligaments.
This hypothesis was proposed by H.E. Huxley, A.F. Huxely are about muscles contraction statements when the muscles contract the thick and thin filaments of muscle fibres sliding over each other but do not change in length.
muscles cramp a sudden involuntary contraction in one arm muscles causes after exercise during sleeping due to mal- farming of muscles our using of muscles dehydration mineral deficiency example writers camp is familiar example of temporary construction.
it is a condition of muscle in which the capacity to produce maximum contraction is reduced even though the muscles still maybe receiving the stimuli causes lactic acid accumulation ionic imbalance recovery physiotherapy and some medication are helpful.
It is a disease caused by Low calcium in blood symptoms it is characterized by muscle cramp spasm tremors.
Because it’s common cause is low calcium level in blood target muscle Tetany may occur in any muscle of the body such as those in the face fingers are claves .
it is infection of nervous system caused by bacteria tetanus symptoms painful sparse of some skeletal muscles typically begins gradually stiffness of jaw and neck muscles and progress to lock the spores of bacteria live in soil and are found all over the world in active form the spores may remain inactive in soil but remain infections for more than 40 years infection the infections begin when spores enter to the body from injury around anus tetanospasmin it is Poison released by bacteria which blocks the nerve signals from spinal cord to muscles Fatal condition it is fatal you to respiratory failure. treatment, it can be treated through vaccines.