KPK Board 10th class Chemistry Ch 6 Environmental chemistry short questions answers
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Definition: The decrease in the concentration of ozone in stratosphere below its normal or natural level is called ozone depletion.
Primary pollutants are those which are directly emitted/introduced into the atmosphere from industrial and automobile sources.
while secondly pollutants are formed chemical and photochemical reactions between primary pollutants and other atmospheric constituents.
ð The name of various greenhouse gases is carbon dioxide, sulphur dioxide & sulphur trioxide, Nitrogen dioxide and methane.
ð Sources of various green house gases are:
Environmental chemistry. The branch of the chemistry of the environment. Various chemical species present in the environment, their adverse effect on humans life and various methods to remove these harmful species is called environmental chemistry.
Atmosphere: The layer of gases which surround and protect the earth is called the atmosphere.
Plants are also damaged by acid rain. Acid rain remove minerals and nutrients from the soil that plants and trees need to grow. The newly growing buds and tips are very sensitive to acid rain. At high altitudes, acidic fog and clouds decrease nutrients from trees and plants, leaving them with brown or dead leaves and needles. These trees are then unable to absorb sunlight, which makes them weak and unable to survive at freezing temperature.
The natural permissible concentration i.e. percentage of in the is 0.036%. When concentration of Increases from this percentage it causes green house effect because absorb and allow the solar radiation to reach the earth surface and block these radiations to the outer atmosphere. It means that trape the radiations which the earth surface reflect, so the reflected radiations remains in the lower sphere & increases the earth’s average temperature.
The wildlife, aquatic life and other microrqanisms are very sensitive to acidity, at pH -5 , most fish eggs cannot hatch. At lower pH levels some adult fish die. If a specie of fish or animals can tolerate moderately acidic water but the animals and plants they eat might not be available as food. For example frog can tolerate the conditions at around pH -4 but the mayflies they eat are more sensitive and may not survive below pH 5.6.
Sources of Co:
Automobile exhausts provide 75% co .
Incomplete combustion of fossil fules.
Smoking , forest fires & steel industries.
Cooking, baking, lndustrial emissions, petroleum production and thermal power generation.
Effects of global warming
Human activities have significantly enhanced the green house effect, which causes the earth average temperature to rise. This is the cause of global warming. Global warming adversely affect the climate, sea level, ozone layer, crops yield, precipitation [rain and snow fall] and health.
The layer of ozone gas protects us from the harmful ultraviolet (uv) radiations of the sun. ozone layer filter out most of the uv rays present in sunlight.
ð Ozone layer allow visible radiation to reach the earth surface, with the help of which we can see substances.