KPK Board 10th class Chemistry Ch 5 Biochemistry short questions answers
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Differences between glucose and Fructose
i) Glucose is pentahydroxy aldehyde while fructose is pentahydroxy ketone.
ii) Glucose molecule contain aldehyde functional group while fructose contain ketone functional group.
iii) Glucose is called alsose while fructose is called ketose.
OH OH OH OH OH OH OH OH OH OH
iv) Molecular formula of look glucose and fructose is the same i.e.
1) Lipids perform many important functions in the body. Their most important function is the long term storage of energy. One gram of fats provide 9300 calories of energy.
2) Butter, oil and ghee are used for cooking and frying of food items, for preparing bakery products and making the food more palatable.
3) In animals, a layer of fat is present under the skin. This layer act as a thermal (heat) insulator. They insulate the body from excessive.
4) Lipids such as cholesterol etc act as hormones to regulate body functions.
Simple Lipids: Simple lipids are also known as triglycerides. They produce fatty acids and alcohol on acid hydrolysis.
Example: Fats, oils, waxes.
Complex lipids: Those lipids which produce fatty acids, alcohols, and some other substances like carbohydrates, phosphoric acid & Nitrogeneous bas are called complex lipids.
Examples: Complex lipids are phospholipids, Glycolipids, sulpholipids, and lypoproteins.
Denaturing of proteins:
Denaturation mean, change in nature i.e. colour, fluidity, concentration, pH etc, structure and shape of proteins. Denaturation means to make protein out of function.
There are two main types of vitamins.
1) Fat soluble vitamins 2) Water-soluble vitamins.
1) Fat soluble vitamins
Vitamins which dissolve in fats are called fat soluble vitamins. These vitamins are A,D,E and K.
2) Water soluble vitamins.
Vitamins which dissolve in water are called water soluble vitamins. These vitamins are B- complex [this include eight vitamins] and vitamin C, which is called ascorbic acid.
Its chemical name is ascorbic acid. Its chemical formula is . Most of the animals can synthesize it but human being can not do so due to absence of enzymes.
It plays a role in blood vessels, gums, healing of wounds and preventing cold. It keep the skin healthy.
Sucrose is a disaccharide. In hydrolysis process it provide two monosaccharide unit, glucose and fructose.
(sucrose) (Glucose ) (Fructose).
The general formula of amino acids is;
R = Alkyl part. Alpha (Ȣ) carbon atom. – COOH : carboxyl functional group. : Amine functional group.
It is also called Retinol. It chemical formula is . It is formed in the intestinal wall form the yellow pigment called carotene.
Sources: vitamin –A can be obtained from carrot, sweet potato, pumpkin, spinach, tomatoes, banana, peach, plums, milk, fish liver oil and certain green vegetables, eggs, butter, cheese are also its main sources.
ð Vitamin A is not found in plants as such, it is preset in the from of pro-vitamin such as B-carotene. Vitamin-A combine with a protein called OP sin to produce a light absorbing compound called rhodopis.
1) Carbohydrates are used by our body as a rich source of energy.
2) Sugar is used as a common sweetener for food.
3) Carbohydrates serve as a source of food.
4) Carbohydrates serve as structural for plants.