KPK Board 10th class Chemistry Ch 3 Organic Chemistry short questions answers
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Functional group: An atom, group of atoms, or a bond which specifies the chemical properties of an organic compound is called a functional group.
Examples of a functional group-containing oxygen atom are:
Hydroxyl (-OH), Ether (-0-), Ester (-co-co-), Aldehyde or formyl ( -CHO) , Keto (-co-) and carboxyl functional group ( -COOH).
Organic compounds can be obtained from natural sources like coal by destructive distillation followed by fractional desolation process. Similarly from petroleum by the fractional distillation process. Organic compounds can be obtanind from plants by crushing and squeezing a part of plant and then the extracted Juice is fractionally distilled in a distillation flask.
Also solvent extraction, soxhlet extraction, striing and refluxing is used.
These are the alkanes in which carbon atoms are linked in such a way that closed chain or rings are formed. In cycloalkanes, there are no free ends. In these alkanes, there are two less H- atoms as compare to non-cyclic alkanes.
The structural and condensed formulae of three unsaturated hydrocarbons are:
H H H H H
H H H H
H H H H H H H H H H
H H H H H H H H
H H H H
H H H H
Definition: Organic compounds that contain only hydrogen and carbon are called hydrocarbons.
Importance: Most of fuel such petrol diesel, CNG (compressed natural gas). LPG ( liquid petroleum gas), natural gas are hydrocarbons.
Beside this, hydrocarbons are used in the manufacturing fertilizers, soap, detergents etc. we can also obtain important derivatives from hydrocarbons. The derivative of hydrocarbons are used in paints, dyes, waxes medicines. Fibers, cosmetice, etc.
Alkyl readicals are formed by removing one hydrogen atom from an alkane molecule.
For example: Alkane -H Alkyl redical
Alkyl radicals are formed by the chemical reaction of alkanes and chlorine in the presence of sunlight.
Chlorine free radicals.
H C H Cl H C + H-Cl
(Methyl free readical)
Uses of organic compounds.
1) Uses as Food: The food we eat in our daily life such as milk, meat, eggs, vegetables etc consist of carbohydrates, proteins, vitamins, fats etc. Which are all organic compounds.
2) Uses as Clothing: The clothes we wear are made up of fibers. These fibers are either natural such as cotton, silk and wool or synthetic fibers such as Nylon, poly Dacron, Orton ester and acrylic, all these are organic.
3) Uses as Medicine: Most of the medicines that we use are organic compounds. These are synthesizes from plants and are used as medicines. Most of the life saving drugs such as antibiotics, anti-inflammatory, Anti- malarial and Asprine are synthesized in the Laboratory.
4) Used as fuel: The fuels we use, such as petrol, diesel oil, compressed natural gas, coal and natural gas are composed of organic compounds.
5) Used as chemical material: The chemicals that we use such as rubber, paper, ink, plastics, fibers, fertilizers, pesticides, insecticides, cosmetic, plants, detergents, etc are all organic compounds.
The general formula of alkanes:
The general formula of alkenes:
The general formula of alkynes:
Ans. Organ compound are volatile or evaporatable in nature because
1) = Most of them are non-polar or less polar.
2) = Due to non-polar the intermolecular attractive forces are very weak & thus volatile in nature.
As chemical properties / reactivity depends upon the functional group present in organic compound, so due to the same functional group of all the members of the homologous series, these pores the same chemical properties.