FBISE 9th Class Computer Chapter 1 Fundamentals of Computer Short Questions Answers
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Class/Subject: 9th Class Computer
Chapter Name: Fundamentals of Computer
Board: Federal Board
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FBISE 9th Class Computer Chapter 1 Fundamentals of Computer Short Questions Answers
What is a computer?
The computer is an advanced electronic device that takes raw data as input from the user and processes it under the control of a set of instructions (called program) gives the result (output). and saves it for future use.
What are tasks performed by the abacus?
Abacus was the earliest calculating device most probably invented in China. Abacus was used to perform addition, subtraction, multiplication, and division. It has been used in China and some other Asian countries till the end of the 20th century.
What is a transistor?
Transistors function like vacuum tubes. It replaced the vacuum tubes in the second generation computer. Transistor was faster, more reliable, smaller, and much cheaper than the vacuum tube.
Write down the types of computers?
i. Analog computers
ii. Digital computers
iii. Hybrid computers
What is open-source software?
It is computer software that is available in the form of source code that allows users to study, change and improve it. Open-source software is free for use, modification, and distribution.
What is application software?
Application software is developed for computer users to solve their problems such as preparing a letter, creating a presentation, or managing a database.
What is system software?
The system software is a collection of programs that makes the use of computers easy and efficient. Highly experienced computer programmers develop system software.
What is an operating system?
An operating system is system software that is responsible for the management and coordination of all the activities performed by the computer. It provides the environment in which the user can interact with the computer hardware to operate the computer.
What are the main groups of system software?
i. Operating system
ii. Device drivers
iii. Utility programs
iv. Language processors
Differentiate between Difference Engine and Analytical Engine?
Difference Engine: In 1822 the English Mathematician Charles Babbage started working on a big calculating machine about the size of a room. He called it Difference Engine.
Analytical Engine: Babbage worked for many years on Difference Engine but he could not complete it. Later, he came up with the idea of an Analytical Engine. He could not complete it because the technology was not advanced enough but he laid the foundation stone of modern digital computers.
Write a note on the Hollerith desk?
In 1890, Herman Hollerith built a tabulating machine called Hollerith desk. Hollerith’s desk consisted of a card reader which sensed the holes in the cards, a gear-driven mechanism that could count, and a large set of dial indicators to display the results. After building Hollerith’s desk, Hollerith started a company by the name of Tabulating Machine Company. Eventually, this company changed its name to International Business Machine (IBM).
Write a short note on Fourth Generation Computers?
In this generation of computers, LSI (Large Scale Integration) and VLSI (Very Large Scale Integration) chips having millions of transistors were developed. The microprocessor was developed in the fourth generation of computers. A microprocessor is a single chip that can handle all the processing of a computer.
What are the main characteristics of fourth-generation computers?
i. The microprocessor was developed which resulted in the development of microcomputers.
ii. Fourth-generation computers are very fast, have large storage capacity, and used advanced input/output devices.
iii. Microcomputers are very small in size, very reliable, consume less power, and are affordable.
iv. Large variety of software is available for use in microcomputers.
v. Operating system having Graphical User Interface (GUI) was developed in this generation.
vi. These computers support multimedia software that combines text, image, sound, and video.
vii. These computers support modern programming languages such as Visual, Basic, C++, Java, and Python for developing powerful software.
viii. Fourth-generation computers support a large variety of portable and wireless input/output devices.
Write a short note on Fifth Generation Computers?
The goal of the fifth generation of computers is to develop devices that can understand natural languages and have thinking power. This is a big challenge for computer developers and programmers to design such a system. and software for them.
What are the main characteristics of the Fifth Generation of Computers?
i. Fifth-generation computers are based on Artificial Intelligence (AI).
ii. In the fifth generation of computers, Artificial Intelligence (AI) will minimize the need to write programs.
iii. These computers will allow users to give commands in any natural language such as English.
Define Hybrid Computers?
Hybrid computers are a combination of analog and digital computers. They combine the characteristics of both analog and digital computers.
What do you know about system analysts?
System analysts analyze the data processing requirements of organizations and develop information systems to implement them. They investigate problems, plan solutions, and recommended the type of hardware and software required for implementing the solution. They also coordinate with the programmers and database administrators in developing information systems.
What do you know about Web Designers?
A web designer is a person whose job is to plan and create a website. He designs web pages that include text, image, sound, video clips and makes the website interactive. HTML (Hypertext Markup Language) is the most commonly used language for creating websites.
Differentiate between hardware and software of a computer?
Hardware: Hardware is a physical device that you can touch and see. Computer hardware refers to the physical components that make up a computer system.
Software: Computer software is a set of instructions that tells a computer what to do and how to do it.
Describe the division of the Keyboard and its functions?
The keyboard is the main input device to communicate with the computer. It allows the computer user to enter letters, numbers, and special symbols into the computer. Functions of a Keyboard:
i. Alphanumeric keyboard
ii. Numeric keyboard
iii. Function keypad
iv. Screen Navigation & Editing keys
Describe the working and functions of a mouse?
It is a hand-held device used to control the movement of the cursor or pointer on the screen. It has two or three buttons at the front that allows the computer user to make a selection in the menu, draw graphics, or open files, folders, and programs.
What is Scanner?
It is a device that captures images from photographs, magazines, books, etc, and stores them in a computer in digital form. This image can be edited, displayed on the screen, or inserted into documents.
Describe the working and structure of the motherboard?
The motherboard is the main circuit board inside the system unit. It contains a microprocessor, main memory, expansion cards, many IC chips, connectors, and other electronic components. It has many buses (electric pathways) printed on it. These are used to transmit information between various components of the computer. All the input/output devices are connected to the motherboard.
What do you know about Registers?
Registers are small memory units inside the microprocessor used to temporarily store some information during the execution of a program. Some commonly used registers are Instruction Registers, Accumulator Register, Data Register, and Memory Address Register.
What is a Hard Disk?
A hard is a magnetic storage device used to store computer data. It has a storage capacity of hundreds of Gigabytes (GB). It is fixed inside the computer casing. A portable hard disk is also available that is attached to the USB port.
Briefly discuss the Memory Card.
A memory card is a small storage device having a storage capacity of few Gigabytes. It is available in different sizes and storage capacities. Memory cards are generally used in laptop computers and portable devices such as mobile phones and digital cameras for storing pictures, audio, and video.
Briefly discuss the USB Flash drive.
USB flash drive is a small portable drive that is connected to the computer through the USB port. It is also known as a USB memory. It is very fast in operation and its storage capacity is up to 128 GB till now.
Differentiate between softcopy and hardcopy?
Softcopy: Information displayed on the monitor is known as a softcopy.
Hardcopy: Anything printed on paper is known as a hardcopy.
What is an impact printer?
The impact printer uses an electro-mechanical mechanism that causes the character shape to strike against the paper and leave an image of the character on the paper.
What is a Plotter?
The plotter is an input device used for printing engineering drawings, machine parts, building designs, maps, charts, and panaflexes, etc on large-size papers/sheets.
Differentiate between PROM and EROM?
PROM (Programmable Read-Only Memory): i. PROM is a non-permanent memory of a computer. It is a programable read-only memory.
ii. PROM is the programable ROM that allows the user to store data an instrument called a PROM programmer does the storing by ‘burning in once the data has been burned, the data cannot be erased.
EPROM (Erasable and Programmable Read-Only Memory): i. EPROM is a non-permanent memory of a computer. It is programable and erases able read-only memory.
ii. EPROM chips can be erased if it needs to updated or fixed. It can be erased electronically only. These are comparatively expensive than PROMs.
What is RAM?
RAM stands for Random Access Memory, RAM is high-speed memory installed on the motherboard. It is RED/WRITE memory. Information can be read from or written into it. Programs are loaded into RAM from secondary storage devices such as a hard disk or USB flash drive for execution by the microprocessor.
Define Cache memory?
The cache is a very small amount of extremely fast memory inside the microprocessor or on the motherboard. It is faster and more expensive than RAM.
Differentiate between expansion slots and expansion cards?
Expansion slots: Expansion slots are long narrow sockets on the motherboard used for installing expansion cards.
Expansion cards: Expansion cards are small circuit boards. These cards add new capabilities to the computer.
Describe the function of ports in a computer.
Port is an interface for connecting various devices to the system unit. These are located on the motherboard and are usually seen at the back of the system unit. A port provides a direct link for external peripheral devices such as keyboard, mouse, monitor, printer, etc. via cables with the computer’s common electrical bus.
What are Analog Computers?
Analog computers represent and process data by measuring quantities such as voltage and current to solve a problem.
Name few household appliances in which a microprocessor is used?
Today, the microprocessor is not only used in microcomputers, they are also used in devices including mobile phones, microwave ovens, cameras, washing machines, televisions, etc.
Write a note on a mainframe computer.
A mainframe computer is a very large, very powerful, and expensive computer that can support hundreds and even thousands of users at the same time. Therefore, these computers are used in large organizations.