9th Class Biology: chapter 8 Nutrition Short Questions Answer

9th Class Biology: chapter 8 Nutrition Short Questions Answer

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Define macronutrient with example?

The nutrients which are required in large quantities are called macronutrients.
Example: Carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, nitrogen, magnesium, potassium etc.
Write name of diseases due to the deficiency of vitamin D?

Deficiency of vitamin D cause rickets and osteomalacia.
Write the main food sources of proteins in human diet?

Following are the main food sources of proteins are meat, eggs, grains, legumes, dairy products milk and cheese.
Which are inorganic fertilizers?

Those fertilizers which are first available from soil to plant for up take are known as inorganic fertilizers.
Describe the role of iron and boron in plant’s life?

Iron: Iron is necessary for photosynthesis, activtes many enzymes.
Boron: Boron is important in sugar transport, cell division, and formation of certain enzymes.
What is meant by tetany?

Automatic releasing of nerve impulse due to lack of calcium is called tetany.
From what sources we get vitamin C?

Citrus fruits leafy green vegatables, beef, liver are best source of vitamin C.
What is sphincter? Describe its types?

The Role whose opening and closing is controlled byy muscles are called sphincter.
Types of Sphincter:
Cardiac Sphincter.
Pyloric Sphincter
What is meant by mastication?

Grinding of food with the help of teeth in oral cavity is called mastication.
Define Appendix?

From the blind end of caecum there arises a non-functional finger-like projection called appendix.
Define villi?

Circular folds in the inner walls of the ileum which have numerous finger like projections are called villi.
Write the role of magnesium in plants?

Magnesium is a structural component of chlorophyll.
It is necessary for functioning of plant enzymes to produce carbohydrates, sugars and fats.
Magnesium is used for fruit and nut formation and essential for germination of seeds.
Differentiate between major minerals and trace minerals?

Major minerals: Minerals that are required in amounts of 100mg or more per day are called Major minerals.
Trace Minerals: Minerals which are required in amounts less than 100 mg per day are called Trace minerals.
Define balanced diet?

A diet which contains all the essential nutrients like carbohydrate, fats, proteins, minerals and vitamins in the correct proportion for te normal growth and development of body is called balanced diet.
What is meant by chime?

Partially digested soup like mixture which enters from stomach to duodenum is called chyme.
What is meant by nutrients?

The elements or compounds that an organism obtains for energy or for synthesis new materials are called nutrients.
Write two adverse affect of carbonated soft drinks?

Carbonated soft drinks are highly acidic, which cause deficiency of oxygen in blood. Excess of soft drink cola, cause stomach ulcer.
Differentiate between Assimilation and Absorption?

Assimilation: Conversion or incorporation of absorbed simple food int the comples substances constituting the body is called assimilation.
Abosrption: Diffusion of digested food into blood and lymph is called absorption.
Write down the weight and size of liver of an adult human?

The Wight of liver is 1.5kg and its size is of a foot balls.
Define Churning?

In stomach food is further converted in to small pieces due to contraction and relaxtion  of stomach wall. This is called churning.
Describe two main type of Fertilizers?

Fertilizers are of two types:
Inorganic fertilizer: Those fertilizers which are available from soil to the plant for up take are inorganic fertilizers.
Organic fertilizer: Fertilizers which take time to be broken down into forms usable by plants due to their complexity are called organic fertilizer.
Describe any two functions of liver beside digestion?

Liver removes amino groups from amino acids.
It also converts ammonia to a less toxic form i.e urea.
What is the difference between bolus and chyme?

Bolus: During the processes of chewing, lubrication and semi-digestion, the pieces of food are rolled up b the tongue into small, slippery, spherical mass called bolus.
Chyme: The starch in our bite of bread and the protein in mutton have been partially digested and the food has been converted to a soup-like mixture called chyme.
What are the major causes of ulcer?

Following are the major causes of ulcer:
Excess acid
Infection
Long term use of anti-inflammatory medicines
Smoking
Drinking coffee
Drinking colas
Eating spicy food
Write down briefly the role of water in human body?

Water is major component in human body. It is basic need of man, all the bio chemical reactions are occurring in presence of water in blood plasma water is the main component, with out the presence the existing of life will be impossible.
What are water soluble vitamins? Write down their names?

The vitamins that are soluble in water are called water soluble vitamins.
Example: Vitamins B and vitamins C are water soluble vitamins.
Write down two types of stomach ulcer?

following are two type of stomach ulcer:
Gastric ulcer
Duodenal ulcer
Define nutrition?

The process in which food is obtained or prepared, absorbed and converted into body substances for growth and energy, is called nutrition.
What is the function of saturated fatty acids in human body?

They provide energy to human body and fulfill the required nutrients. The great source of human food is consist on saturated fatty acids.
Define dehydration?

Lack of water in body is called dehydration, this is due to shortage of water or excess removal of water in the form of water.
Write three parts of large intestine?

Large intestine have following parts.
Caecum
Colon
Rectum
Which is the largest gland of human body and where it is located?

Liver is the largest gland of body. It lies beneath the diaphragm of right side of abdomen.
What are the main causes of constipation?

Excessive absorption of water through colon.
Insufficient intake of dietary fibre.
Dehydration.
Use of medicines containing iron, calcium and aluminium.
Tumours in the rectum or anus.
How the deficiency o vitamin A causes blindness?

Vitamin A combine with a protein called opsin to form rhodopsin in rod cells of retina of eye. When vitamin A is inadequate, the lack of rhodopsin makes it difficult to see in dim light which result in blindness.
Deficiency of which Vitamin causes Osteomalacia? Write down one symptom?

Lack of vitamin D cause ostemalacia in which bones become soft.
Why full grain bread is better than white bread?

Full grain bread is better tha white bread because it contain more dietary fibers.
Define malnutrition?

Malnutrition is a term for the condition caused by an improper or insufficient diet.
Define fertilizers?

Materials which are added to soil resulted in plants with desirable characteristics are called fertilizers.
Write the function of liver in digestive system?

Liver secrete bile, which is stored in gall bladder when gall bladder contracts bile is released in to duoderum through common bile duct. Bile has no enzyme but contains bile salt for emulsification of lipids. It help the lipid digesting enzymes to attack on lipids.
Write the role of calcium and Potassium in plants life?

Calcium: Activates enzymes is a structural component of cell wall, influences water movement in cells.
Potassium:
Regulates the opening and closing of the stoma.
Reduces water loss from the leaves.
Differentiate between Saturated and Unsaturated Fatty Acid. Give one example of each?

Saturated fatty acids: Saturated fatty acids have all of their carbon atoms bonded to hydrogen atoms.
Example: Butter.
Unsaturated fatty acids: The fatty acids which have some of their carbon atoms double-bonded in place of a hydrogen atom.
Example: Sunflower oil.
Describe the function of Vitamin D?

The best-known function of vitamin D is to help regulate bold levels of calcium and phosphorous.
Vitamin D increases absorption of these minerals from the intestine and their deposition in bones.
Describe the reason of disease Goiter. Also write effects on Body?

Reason: Goiter is a condition caused by an insufficient amount of lodine in diet. Lodine is used b thyroid gland to produce hormone that control the body normal functioning and growth.
Effects: If sufficient iodine is not available in a person diet thyroid gland become enlarged and it results in swelling the neck.
Describe the function of Pepsin in Stomach?

Pepsin is a powerful protein digesting enzyme. It is released in active form, pepsinogen, it requires HCI for its activation. Pepsin partially digest the protein portion of food in to polypeptides and shorter peptides chains.
What are sources of vitamin-D?

Vitamin D is found in fish liver, oil, milk, ghee, and butter. It also prepared by our skin when sun light fall on it.
What is the function of iron and calcium in human diet?

In human body iron is used to transport and storage of O2 while calcium is used for development and maintenance of bones and teeth. It also help in blood clotting.
What is diarrhea? Write its two causes?

The condition in which the patient has frequent watery, loose bowel movement is called diarrhea.
Causes: It is caused by bacterial infection of large intestine.
The main cause of diarrhea includes lack of adequate safe water.
Write the symptoms of diarrhea and constipation?

Symptoms of diarrhea: The patient has abdominal pain nausea and vomiting.
Symptoms of constipation: In constipation a person experiences hard faeces, that is difficult to eliminate.
Write the role of phosphorus and zinc in plants?

Phosphorus: It is necessary for seed germination photosynthesis and protein formation.
Zinc: It is required in a large number of enzymes.
What are the causes of anemia and goiter diseases in man?

Cause of Goiter: Goiter is caused by an insufficient amount of iodine in the diet.
Cause of Anemia: The condition is caused by the deficiency of iron when the number of red blood cells is reduced than the normal. Haemoglobin molecule contains a single atom of iron at its center. If body fails to receive sufficient amounts of iron, an adequate number of haemoglobin molecules are not formed. In this case, there are not enough functioning red blood cells.
Write the name of two juices secreted in small intestine of man?

Following are two juices secreted in small intestine of man.
Pancreatic juice
Bile Juice
Write the role of dietary fibres in human diet?

Fibre prevents and relives constipation reduce the risk of many other diseases. Soluble fibre helps in lowering blood cholesterol. Insoluble fibre speed up the movement of carcinogens.
What is the role of phosphorus in living organisms?

Phosphorus: It is component of ATP nucleic acid and enzymes, necessary for seed germination, photosynthesis, protein formation etc.
What is meant by protein?

Proteins are composed of maine acid. Proteins are essential components of the cytoplasm, membranes and organells. Many proteins play role as enzymes proteins can also used for gaining energy. One gram of protein contains 04 Kilocalories of energy.
Write briefly the role of oral cavity?

Oral cavity is space behind mouth and has many important functions.
Selection of food is very important function of oral cavity. The sense of smell and taste help the oral cavity. Grinding of food is also carried out by oral cavity.
Write the role of potassium and calcium in man?

Potassium: It act as fluid balnce in body, also acts as cofactor for enzyme important for muscle contraction.
Calcium: It play vital role in development and maintenance of bones and teeth, also for clotting.
Write the names of two diseases due to protein energy malnutrition?

Following two diseases are caused due to protein energy malnutrition.
Kwashiorkor
Marasmus
What problems are caused by over intake of vitamin A and D?

Vitamins are required in low amounts. Excess amount of vitamin A cause loss of appetite and cause liver problems. Excess amount of vitamin D cause deposition of calcium in tissues. It also cause pains in bones and stone in kidney.
What Problems are caused by over intake of vitamin A and D?

Obesity means becoming over weight and it may also due to malnutrition. People who take food more than their requirements and do very little physical work become obese. It is known as mother disease and leads to heart problems, hypertension and diabetes.
From where bile secretion is produced? Write its function?

Liver secrete a juice known as bile. It helps in digestion of lipids.
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