12th Class English Chapter 10 The Jewel of The World Short Question Answer
1.Give an account of the early career of abd-al-Rahman I his dramatic escape and his adventures in Africa?
On the arrival of enemies, Abd-al-Rahman swam across the river to save his life. In North Africa he could hardly escape assassination. Five years later he reached Cetin. His maternal uncles lived in North Africa. They offered him refuge.
2.How did Abd-al-Rahman deal with the governor appointed by the Abbasid caliph to contest his rule?
Abd-al-Rahman killed the governor cut his head off and sent it to the Abbasid caliph as a gift.
3.What did the Abbasid caliph say on receiving the head of his governor?
He said, Thanks be to Allah for having placed the sea between us and such a foe.
4.What did abd-al-Rahman do to make himself strong and to beautify his capital?
He developed a highly trained army. He supplied pure water to the capital. He built a wall round his capital . He also built a palace and a garden there.
5.Give an account of the all-round progress made by the Arabs under Abd-al-Rahman III?
In the reign of Abd-al-Rahman III, Cordova became the most cultured city of Europe. Leather industry made a flying start there. Wool and silk were woven there. Glassware brass work and pottery were introduced there. Agriculture and industry made a lot of progress.
6.What did AI-Hakam do to promote learning and scholarship in his kingdom?
He set up 27 free schools in the capital. He enlarged the mosque which housed the university of Cordova. He invited professors from the East to it. He gathered 400,000 books in the library of Cordova.
7.Who overthrew Umayyad? OR When and by Whom was Umayyad family overthrown?
In 750 the Abbasid family overthrew Umayyad family in Damascus.
8.How did Abbasids behave with Umayyad family?
The Abbasids killed every member of the Umayyad family whom they could catch.
9.Where did Abd-al-Rahman escape and how did he live there?
Abd-al-Rahman escaped to Spain. He became the ruler of Spain and kept his family in power there.
10.How did Abd-al-Rahman escape from the soldiers of Abbasids?
When Abbasids came to capture him he jumped into the river kept on swimming and gained the other shore.
11.Where did Abd-al-Rahman go from Ceuta? OR Who were staying in the south of Spain when Abd-al-Rahman reached there from Ceuta? OR Who accepted Abd-al-Rahman as their leader for the first time?
Some Syrian troops from Damascus were encamped in the south of Spain. Abd-al-Rahman made his way to them and they accepted him as their leader.
12.What did Abd-al-Rahman do with the governor of Spain appointed by the Abbasid’s caliph? OR What gift did Abd-al-Rahman send to the Abbasid caliph?
Two year later Abd-al-Rahman killed the Abbasid governor and sent his head as a gift to the Abbasid caliph. It was preserved in salt and camphor and wrapped in black flag and in the letter of appointment.
13.What sort of Army did Abd-al-Rahman develop? OR How did Abd-al-Rahman keep his Army in his favor?
Abd-al-Rahman developed a well-disciplined and highly trained army of 40,000 or more Berbers. He gave generous pay ot his army to keep them in his favor.
14.What did Abd-al-Rahman do in 773? OR What did Abd-al-Rahman decide about the sermon on Fridays?
He ended the Friday sermon which was read in the name of the Abbasid caliph till then. But he did not assume the title of caliph himself.
15.In Which field did Abd-al-Rahman take interest after he had proved himself a great man in the art of war?
After proving himself to be a great warrior Abd-al-Rahman turned to the arts of peace. He made his cities beautiful built a channel for the supply of pure water to the capital built a wall around it and ordered the building of a palace and a garden.
16.What kinds of plants did Abd-al-Rahman introduce in his palace? OR What did Abd-al-Rahman utter to the first lonely palm-tree?
To his villa he brought water and introduced some inported plants such as peaches and pomegranate. He uttered some of his own tender verses to the first lonely palm-tree imported from Syria.
17.What did Abd-al-Rahman found two years before his death? OR Which masque did Abd-al-Rahman found in 788? OR What was the status of mosque founded by Abd-al-Rahman?
Abd-al-Rahman founded the great Mosque of Cordova in 788 two years before his death. This mosque was a rival to the two mosques of Islam in Jerusalem and Mecca. The mosque was completed and enlarged by his heirs.
18. How was the court of Abd-al-Rahman? OR From which countries did the envoys come to the court of Abd-al-Rahman?
Abd-al-Rahman’s court was one of the most glorious courts in all Europe. It received envoys from Byzantine emperor as well the kings of Germany Italy and France.
19.What was the magnificence of Cordova? OR Describe Cordova of Abd-al-Rahman?
The population of Cordova was half a million. There were seven hundred mosques and three hundred public baths. In magnificence it was second to Baghdad and Constantinople only.
20.Where was the palace al-Zahra situated and how many rooms and guards were in it?
The royal palace al-Zahra stood northwest of Cordova overlooking the Guadalquivir River. There were four hundred rooms and apartments in it. There lived thousands of slaves and guards.
21.How much was Abd-al-Rahman guarded in his palace?
In al-Zahra abd-al-Rahman was surrounded by a bodyguard of slaves which numbered 3750 and headed his army of hundred thousand men.
22.What was the income of the state and how was it used?
The income of the state reached 62,45,000 dinars. One third of the income fulfilled the needs of the army one third was spent for the welfare of the public and one third was placed in reserve.
23.When did the state of Spain become unstable?
In 912 when abd-al-Rahman III came into power civil disturbances and tribal revolts had reduced the Moslem state of Spain to the city of Cordova and its neighbourhood.
24.How did Abd-al-Rahman III strengthen his state?
Abd-al-Rahman III was an able youth. He recaptured the lost areas maintained law and order there and ruled with wisdom and skill. He remained the ruler for 50 year from 912 to 961.
25.Hwo did Cordova win international fame?
With its 1,13,000 homes 21 outlying districts 70 libraries countless bookshops mosques and palaces it gained international fame and won the praises f the travelers. The streets were paved and lighted.
26.What did a Saxon nun say about Moslem capital Cordova?
When the fame of Cordova penetrated to the distant Germany a Saxon nun there styles it the world.
27.What was the industrial condition Of Moslem Spain?
There were thousands of weavers and a successful leather industry. Wool and silk were woven. Glassware brass work pottery and swords were produced. The art of inlaying steel and other metals with gold and silver produced. The art of inlaying steel and other metals with gold and silver flourished there.
28.What was the condition of silk-worm industry in Spain?
Originally China produce dsilk worms. The industry was introduced in Spain by the Muslims and it flourished there. Wool and silk were woven not only I Cordova but in Malaga Almeria and other centres.
29.Why was Generalife so famous?
The garden was famous because of its wide shades falling waters and soft breeze. It was in the form of an amphitheatre and was irrigated by streams which formed many falls.
30. Who was Al- Hakam? OR What kind of man was Al-Hakam?
Al-Hakam was the successor of Abd-al-Rahman III. He himself was a scholar and supported learning and scholars. He set up 27 free schools in the capital under him the University of Cordova became one of the famous institutions of the world.
31.Whare was situated the University of cordova and what was its status in the institutions of the world?
It was Started in the main mosque of cordova. It became one of the famous institutions of the world. In fame it led both al-Azhar at Cairo and the Nizamiyah of Baghdad. It attracted the Muslim as well as the Christian students from all parts of Europe Africa and Asia.
32.What did Al-Hakam do to promote the University of Cordova? OR What steps did Al-Hakam take for the uplift of the university?
Al-Hakam enlarged the mosque which housed the university. He brought water to it. HE decorated it with mosaics brought from Byzantine artists. He invited professors from the East to it and allocated special funds for their salaries.
33.Was there a library in the capital of Spain?
Yes the capital housed a big library. It contained 400,000 books. Only the catalogue consisted of forty four volumes. Each volume of catalogue contained 20 pages of poetical works.
34.Was Al-Hakam a good reader?
Probably Al-Hakam was the best scholar among the Muslim caliphs. He read and made notes in the margins of many books which them even more valuble.