12th Class English Ch 5 Mustafa Kamal Short Question Answer
1.What was the attitude of the Turkish government towards the Allies after World war I?
The Allies were welcomed by the Turkish government . The Padishah himself was eager to co-operate with the Allies to ensure cease-fire.
2.Why was Mustafa Kamal sent to Anatolia?
A revolt against the Allies started in Eastern Anatolia. This caused alarm among the Allies. The Padishah sent Mustafa Kamal there to put down the revolt.
3.What was the reaction of the Turkish patriots to the intention of the Allies to partition the Ottoman Empire?
The Turks were very angry at the intention of the Allies to partition the Ottoman Empire.
4.Write a note on Mustafa Kamal’s activities in Anatolia?
In Anatolia Mustafa Kamal started a guerrilla war against the Greeks. He urged the patriots to build up a National Army. He suggested the establishment of government at Anatolia.
5.Why did Mehmet order Mustafa Kamal to return to Constantinople?
Mustafa Kamal started a guerrilla war against the Greeks in Anatolia. He suggested the establishment of government at Anatolia. When the Sultan heard of these activities of Mustafa Kamal he ordered him to return to Istanbul.
6.What was Mustafa kamal’s reply?
Mustafa kamal sent a telegram to sultan . He asked him to come over to Anatolia to lead his people against the Allies.
7.How did Mehmet try to regain Anatolia for himself?
Mehmet said that he was willing to form the government pleasing to the Nationalists. He said that the delegates in Anatolia should shift their activities to Istanbul.
8.Why did Mehmet’s plan fail?
Mustafa Kamal saw through the plot of Mehmet. He did not come to Istanbul. Thus Mehmet’s Plan to trap Mustafa kamal Failed.
9.What were terms offered to Turkey by the Allies?
It was said that all the Arab provinces were to be Mandated territories. The Eastern Anatolia would go to Armenia Izmir to Cicilia to France and Istanbul to Britain France and Italy.
10.Give an account of the Greek attack and their defeat?
The Greeks fought with Turks for fourteen days. By the 4th of September 1921, the Greeks were at the end of their strength. On the 12th they began to retreat slowly.
11.Give an account of the departure of Mehmet from Istanbul?
On 17th of November 1922 a British motor arrived at the palace of Mehmet. The old sultan sat in the car. He was on his way to exile.
12.Describe the reforms introduce by Mustafa kamal with reference3 to the position of women?
Mustafa kamal said that the higher education of women was their big need. He said that women would be educated in every field of science
13.Describe the reforms introduced by Mustafa kamal with reference to the removal of illiteracy?
He replaced the old script by the Roman script. He himself taught people how to use the new language. He asked women to get higher education. In this way he removed illiteracy.
14.Describe the reforms introduced by Mustafa kamal with reference to the change in dresses?
In 1925 Mustafa kamal put an end to the wearing of Fez. The wearing of hats was made necessary. He also banned wearing of veil by women.
15.Describe the reforms introduced by Mustafa kamal with reference to the adoption of the roman script?
He replaced the old script with the Roman Script. He himself taught people how to use the new script.
16.Describe the reforms introduced by Mustafa kamal with reference to the industrial and economic development?
He built new roads and railways. He increased the number of factories. He encouraged heavy industries. He organized the banking system.
17.Sum up in a few sentences the work of Mustafa kamal as a great nation-builder?
Mustafa kamal educated the people. He brought about social and economic reforms in society. He built new roads and railways. He increased the number of factories. He organized the banking system. In short he proved to be a great nation-builder.
18.What was the attitude of Turkish people/ Turkish government towards the Allies after the First world War?
The Turkish people were happy to lay down arms after a long war. The government and the Padishah himself were eager to co-operate with the Allies to ensure cease-fire.
19.Who practically controlled Turkey after war? OR What was the new name given to the British Embassy after war?
The old British Embassy became the British High Commission. It was supported by army. Allied officers were supervising the police and the ports and the system of the government.
20.Who was selected to crush the revolt against the Allies in Anatolia?
Mustafa kamal as the Governor General of the Eastern Provinces was sent there on 15th of May 1919 to Anatolia to put down the revolt.
21. When did the Allies decide to divide Turkey among themselves?
On 15th of May 1919 the Allies decided to divide Turkey among themselves to the very walls of Istanbul.
22.What was the reaction of the Turks when the Greeks occupied Izmir and Aydin?
The Turks were angry. Turkish patriotism was no longer vague and undecided. It was a flame burning in the hears of men and women of all classes. It was a flame of fury not of hatred.
23.What did Mustafa kamal do to prepare people for patriotic revolt?
Mustafa kamal himself set out to tour the villages preaching resistance. He appointed his representatives at every place to form th ecentres of patriotic revolt.
24.What did Mustafa kamal reply when he was ordered to return?
In a lon personal telegram to Padishah he urged him to come over to Anatolis to lead his people against the foreign forces. He also warned Mehmet that it was his last chance to save himself the throne and the Turkish Nation.
25.Why did the trick/ paln of Mehmet fail to capture Mustafa kamal?
Mustafa kamal saw through the plot of Mehmet. He did not turst his promises. He stayed in Anatolia and continued his work.
26.When did Turkish Grand Assembly meet for the first time in Ankara?
On 23rd of April 1920 the revolutionary Turkish Grand National Assembly met at Ankara. Mustafa kamal was then its President.
27.Narrate the main terms of peace the Allies wanted to impose?
It was said that all the Arab provinces were to be Mandated Territories. The Eastern Anatolia was to go to Aemenia Izmir to Greeks Cicilia to France and Istanbul to Britain France and Italy.
28.Why was the Ottoman Government branded as the puppet government by the patriots?
The patriots branded the Ottoman government as the puppet government of traitors and fools lest it should sign the terms of peace offered by the Allies.
29.Where/how was the battle fought between the Greeks and the Turks?
In the hilly area above the sakarya River some fifty kilometers west of Ankara the two brave peoples fought recklessly and grimly for fourteen days.
30.What was the condition of Izmir after war?
It was crowded with refugees. The battleships rpse helpless in the harbor t take as many Greek soldiers as possible. There were no ships for the Greek and Armenian People.
31.What was the condition of Izmir after war?
It was crowded with refugees. The battleships rose helpless in the harbor to take as many Greek soldiers as possible. There were no ships for the Greek and Armenian people.
32.What were the old titles of the Sultan?
He was called the Emperor of powerful Emperors , Refuge of Sovereigns Distibutor of Crowns to the Kings of the Earth master of Europe Asia and Africa High king of the two seas.
33.When did Mehmet leave Turkey?
On 17th of November 1922 a British motor arrived at the palace fo Mehmet. The old sultan sat in the car. The door was closed and the motor drove away. The last of the sultans was on his way exile.
34.What was the first task Mustafa kamal undertook after assuming power?
Mustafa kamal’s first object was to educate the people . state education was unknown in Turkey. He faced two problems to teach the masses and to train s many teachers as possible.
35.What was the first step Mustafa kamal took to educate his people?
He replaced the old script with the Roman script. He made tours to teach people how to use the new script. He fixed the date by which everyone was to have learnt the new script.
36.Why was it necessary to simplify the language?
It was necessary for two reasons: First educated speech was the mixture of Turkish Arabic and Persian words . Second he though that the flowery phrases were out dated in the modern world.
37.How did Mustafa kamal change old titles?
He changed the old titles which were useless in the new world of effort. The word Pasha was abolished. Every man became Bay and every woman became Bayan.
38.What did Mustafa kamal say about woman’s right?
He said that their nation had decided to be strong. Their supreme need was the higher education of their women. They shall be educated in every field of science and receive the same degrees as men.
39.Describe Mustafa kamal as a great reformer?
He educated the people introduced the Roman script made language easy abolished old titles replaced Fez by hat abolished veil. He built new roads railways factories and organized the banking system.
40.Why did the Turkish people reject the treaty?
The terms of the treaty were not acceptable for Turkey. The treaty would have been the death sentence of Turkey. Therefore the Turks rejected it.
41.Who abolished Sultanate and when?
On the 23rd of April 1920 the Turkish Grand National Assembly met with Mustafa kamal as its president. It abolished Sultanate and announced that the Assembly in Ankara would preside over Turkey.