12th Class Biology Chapter 5 Growth and Development Short Question Answers
12th Class Biology Chapter 5 Growth and Development Short Question Answers Below
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Growth is the permanent and irreversible increase in size that occurs as an organism gets older.
The growth is slow in the beginning gradually becomes rapid, attains maximum rate, then slows down and finally stops altogether.
The meristems are the regions of the body of a plant where cells are actively engaged in division.
These are the apical meristems located at the tips of roots and shoots; intercalary meristems situated at the bases of internodes; and the lateral meristems found between permanent tissues such as cambium.
They produce leaves and flowers.
The apical meristems located at the tips of the root and the stem initiate primary growth.
The cambium initiates secondary growth.
The primary growth lends to the increase in length of the plant whereas the secondary growth leads to an increase in its width (thickness) or diameter.
In the apical regions of the shoots and the roots, cell division occurs most intensively towards the extreme tips whereas most rapid increase in the size of cells occurs in the zones few millimeters behind the tips.
These are the phase of cell division, phase of cell elongation, phase of cell maturation and phase of cell differentiation.
The conversion of meristematic cells of plants into permanent and full grown tissues is called cellular differentiation.
The fibers and the tracheid’s of shoots and roots elongate greatly parallel to their long axes and only slightly in other directions.
These are the temperature, light, oxygen and carbon dioxide etc.
These factors are hormones, water and vitamins etc.
This range of temperature is form 0°C to 35°C.
The temperature at which a physiological process occurs at its maximum rate is called optimum. The range of optimum temperature for plant growth is 25°C to 30°C.
The light influences growth by its intensity, quality and duration.
The increase in the intensity of light increases rate of growth by accelerating cell division at the growing regions of the stem.
The red light favours elongation of cells and the blue light enhances cell division but retards cell enlargement.
These factors are temperature and light.
The relationship that exists between the different growth rates of various parts of a plant body is called growth correlation.
Thimann and Skoog concluded that apical dominance was caused by auxin diffusing from the apical bud which inhibited the growth of lateral buds (shoots).
The cytokinins play an important role in apical dominance. For example, in many plants application of cytokinins directly on the inhibited bud can release its inhibition in an intact plant.
Embryology is the branch of biology which deals with the study of development of the zygote till it forms the adult organism.
These are cleavage, gastrulation, organogenesis growth and differentiation.
The egg shell is secreted in hens after the fertilization when the egg passes through the shell gland in the uterus.
Cleavage is the process of cell division of the zygote by mitosis which gives rise to multicellular embryo.
Only the initial three cleavage divisions of the zygote are regular, of which the first two are vertical and the third horizontal.
These are known as the blastomeres.
The blastocoel is the name of the cavity within the embryo of the chick at the blastula stage.
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