12th Class Biology Chapter 12 Some Major Ecosystems Short Questions Answer

biology short QA

12th Class Biology Chapter 12 Some Major Ecosystems Short Questions Answer

1.Can you differentiate between altitude?

1.Can you differentiate between altitude?

Answer : The angular distance on a meridian north or south of the equator,expressed in degrees and minutes is called latitude.While height in relation to equator is called altitude.
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2.How many regions open water area is divided into?

2.How many regions open water area is divided into?

Answer : The open water area is divided into two regions;the upper Limnetic zone and the lower profundal zone.
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3.What is hydrospheric or aquatic ecosystem?

3.What is hydrospheric or aquatic ecosystem?

Answer : Hydrospheric ecosystem is a system in water where living and non-living components exchange material and transfer of energy also takes place within place within water.
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4.What are plankton?

4.What are plankton?

Answer : Living among the anchored plants are microscopic organisms called plankton.Simply the small floating organisms aare known as plankton.These can be divided into two groups. 1) Phytoplankton: They include photosynthetic protista bacteria and algae. 2) Zooplankton: Such as protozoa and tiny curstaceans.
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5.What types of organisms are present in profundal zone of lake?

5.What types of organisms are present in profundal zone of lake?

Answer : Decomposers and detritus feeders such as snails and certain insect larvae bacteria fungi and fishes are present in it.
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6.Name the sub-divisions of forest ecosystem?

6.Name the sub-divisions of forest ecosystem?

Answer : It is further sub-divided into; i) Tropical Rain forests ii) Temperate Deciduous forest iii)Coniferous Alpine and Boreal forests.
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7.What type of animals are present in temperate decicuous forest?

7.What type of animals are present in temperate decicuous forest?

Answer : Some very common animals are Macaca mulatta Solenorotos tibitanus Felis bengalensis deer and wolves with various types of micro-organisms to convert the litter into organic matter such as bacteria fungi and earthworms.
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8.What is the location of coniferous alpine and boreal forests?

8.What is the location of coniferous alpine and boreal forests?

Answer : In Pakistan these forest are in upper Kaghan Dir and chilas malam jaba in Swat valley.In world they stretch across Eurasia and North America.Canada just south of the tundra.
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9.Name some grasslands of Pakistan?

9.Name some grasslands of Pakistan?

Answer : Grassland ecosystems are found is Gilgit ,Kashmir ,Waziristan,lower Chirtral and North Kallat.
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10.What is Layering in ecosystem?

10.What is Layering in ecosystem?

Answer : Layering is the characteristic of grassland.Tall grasses from the first layer mid high gresses form teh second layer and third layer is formed by short grasses and forbs warfare species with mosses and lichens.
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11.Define productivity of an ecosystem?

11.Define productivity of an ecosystem?

Answer : Productivity can be defined as the rate of production of new biomass during the period under consideration.Productivity is generally expressed in terms of grams or kilocalories per sq.meter or hector per sq.meter per year.
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12.Name three zones in lake ecosystem?

12.Name three zones in lake ecosystem?

Answer : i) Littoral zone – Shallow water area. ii) Limnetic zone – Open water area with light penetration. iii) Profunbdal zone – Deep dark water area without light penetration.
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13.How many biomes are present in the world name only five of them?

13.How many biomes are present in the world name only five of them?

Answer : 10 biomes are present in the world e.g. Tropical rain forest Tropical decidouous forest Tropical scrub forest Savanna Temperate grassland Temperate deciduous forest Desert Taiga Tundra and Chaparral.
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14.Give the name of some major ecosystem on land in Pakistan?

14.Give the name of some major ecosystem on land in Pakistan?

Answer : i) Temperate Deciduous forest. ii)Coniferous Alpine and Boreal forests. iii) Grass land ecosystem. iv) Desert ecosystem. v) Tundra ecosystem.
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15.What are the four major requirements for life?Which two are limiting in terrestrial ecosystem?

15.What are the four major requirements for life?Which two are limiting in terrestrial ecosystem?

Answer : Major requirements for life are: i) light ii) Nutrient iii) water iv) Temperature v) Air
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16.Differentiate between weather and climate?

16.Differentiate between weather and climate?

Answer : Weather refers to short-term fluctuations in temperature humidity cloud cover wind and precipitation over periods of hours or days.Climate in contrast refers to overall patterns of weather that prevail from year to year even century-to-century in a particular region.
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17.What are Characteristics of littoral Zone?

17.What are Characteristics of littoral Zone?

Answer : In this zone the water is shallow and plants find abundant light anchorage and adequate nutrients from the bottom sediments.
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18.What is the location temperate deciduous forests in Pakistan and rest of the world?

18.What is the location temperate deciduous forests in Pakistan and rest of the world?

Answer : In Pakistan temperate moist conditions are present in Neelam valley and Shogran.These forests originally covered India Southeast Asia, Eastern North America, Europe, China, Australia japan,North and South America.
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19.What is the range of Rainfall and temperature in temperate deciduous forest?

19.What is the range of Rainfall and temperature in temperate deciduous forest?

Answer : The average rainfall is between 750-1500 mm.Moderate temperature ranges from 4ᵒC – 30ᵒC.
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20.Name the plants of temperate deciduous forest?

20.Name the plants of temperate deciduous forest?

Answer : Some dominant trees are:Taxus baccata, Pinus wallichiana, Berberis lyceum usually with height 8 to 30 meters.
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21.What is Taiga?

21.What is Taiga?

Answer : Northern coniferous forests are also called Taiga.
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22.Differentiate between Alpine and Boreal forests?

22.Differentiate between Alpine and Boreal forests?

Answer : Coniferous forests located at high altitude are called alpine while coniferous forests located at high latitude are called boreal.
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23.What do you know about the animal life of coniferous alpine and boreal forests?

23.What do you know about the animal life of coniferous alpine and boreal forests?

Answer : Large mamals bison wolf black bear deer marco polo sheep and smaller animals such as small Kashmir flying squirrel snowshoe hare wolverine crossbills are present.
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24.Name the plants of coniferous alpine and boreal forosts?

24.Name the plants of coniferous alpine and boreal forosts?

Answer : Plants like pinus wallichiana pinus roxburgii abies pindrow Picea smithiana Cederous deodara are present.
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25.What are Prairies?

25.What are Prairies?

Answer : Grasslands present in temperate climates are also called Prairies such as prairies of North America pampas of Argentina.These grasslands do not have woody plants so they are know as prairies.
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26.What is Savanna?

26.What is Savanna?

Answer : The grasslands in tropic climates have woody trees and are called Savanna.
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27.What is the annual Rain fall in grasslands?

27.What is the annual Rain fall in grasslands?

Answer : Annual rainfall is about 250 to 750 mm.The grasslands usually face severe rains, which in tropical and subtropical grassland reaches about 1500 mm.
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28.Name some predators of grassland?

28.Name some predators of grassland?

Answer : The predators are reptiles amphibians and mammals such as lizards toads and turtles prey on insects.Foxes and wolves among mammals are very common.
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29.What is the productivity of grassland ecosystem?

29.What is the productivity of grassland ecosystem?

Answer : In temperate grassland the rate of primary production is about 700 – 1500 g/m annually.In sub humid tropical grassland it is more than 4000 g/m.
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30.What is the location of deserts in pakistan?

30.What is the location of deserts in pakistan?

Answer : In Pakistan the desert ecosystems are found in western punjab where it is known as Thal. In southern punjab areas like fort abbas Bahawal nagar Yazman Bahawal pur khan pur and Rahim yar khan also have deserts.In Sindh this desert ecosystem is called Thar.
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31.What is desertification?

31.What is desertification?

Answer : While human activities are reducing the extent of many biomes they are causing the spread of deserts a process called desertification.
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32.What is tundra?

32.What is tundra?

Answer : It is used to describe types of vegetation in treeless high latitudes between taiga and polar ice caps and at high altitude across the mountain above timberline such as mountain of Karakorum and Koh Hindukush in Pakistan.
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33.What types of Plant life is found in tundra?

33.What types of Plant life is found in tundra?

Answer : The ground is carpeted with small perennial flowers and dwarf willows on more than a few centimetres tall often with large lichen called rein deer moss.
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34.What types of animal life if present in tundra?

34.What types of animal life if present in tundra?

Answer : The standing pools provide superb mosquito habitat.The mosquitoes and other insects provide food for numerous birds.The tundra vegetation supports lemmings which are eaten by wolves snowy owls arctic foxes and even grizzly bears.
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35.What is lithspheric ecosystem?

35.What is lithspheric ecosystem?

Answer : The ecosystem present on land or soil is called terrestrial or lithospheric ecosystem.
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36.Differentiate between phytoplankton and zooplankton?

36.Differentiate between phytoplankton and zooplankton?

Answer : The floating plants are called phytoplankton while floating animals are called zooplankton.
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Which factors affect life, specially on land?

Which factors affect life, specially on land?

Answer : These are the weather and the climate.
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Describe weather?

Describe weather?

Answer : Weather means short-term fluctuations in temperature, humidity, cloud cover, wind and precipitation (rainfall) of a locality over periods of hours or days.
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What does climate mean?

What does climate mean?

Answer : Climate means the overall patterns of weather that prevail from year to year and country to country.
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Name the two main and basic kinds of ecosystems in the world?

Name the two main and basic kinds of ecosystems in the world?

Answer : These are the aquatic or hydrospheric ecosystem and the terrestrial or land or lithospheric ecosystem.
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How is the earth’s surface divided into fresh water, marine water and land?

How is the earth’s surface divided into fresh water, marine water and land?

Answer : Fresh water, marine water and land comprise 1%, 71% and 28% of earth’s surface, respectively.
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Beyond which depth of even clearest water can photosynthesis not take place on account of very little light?

Beyond which depth of even clearest water can photosynthesis not take place on account of very little light?

Answer : The depth is beyond 600 feet.
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Where are nutrients concentrated in the aquatic ecosystem and why?

Where are nutrients concentrated in the aquatic ecosystem and why?

Answer : In the aquatic ecosystem, the nutrients are concentrated near the bottom sediments supporting life, where light is too little to allow photosynthesis.
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Name the main factors of the aquatic ecosystem that determine the quantity and quality of life?

Name the main factors of the aquatic ecosystem that determine the quantity and quality of life?

Answer : These factors are the energy and nutrients.
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Define productivity of an ecosystem. How is it indicated?

Define productivity of an ecosystem. How is it indicated?

Answer : Productivity can be defined as the rate of production of new biomass (photosynthate) during the period under consideration. It is indicated by the consumption of CO₂ and evolution of oxygen in the process of photosynthesis.
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Classify aquatic ecosystem?

Classify aquatic ecosystem?

Answer : Aquatic ecosystem is classified into fresh-watered and marine ecosystems.

What is the ultimate source of emerge for all the natural ecosystems?

What is the ultimate source of emerge for all the natural ecosystems?

Answer :
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It is the light (solar energy).
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Name the zones of eth standing water bodies such as lakes?

Name the zones of eth standing water bodies such as lakes?

Answer : These are the littoral zone, the limnetic zone and the profundal zone.
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Explain littoral zone of water.

Explain littoral zone of water.

Answer : It is the shallow water region near the edge of the lake, with light penetrating to the bottom.
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What is plankton? What are its kinds?

What is plankton? What are its kinds?

Answer : Plankton is the large community of the floating or drifting organisms, mostly microscopic. It is of two kinds viz. phytoplankton and zooplankton.
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Define zooplankton?

Define zooplankton?

Answer : A group of floating animals is known as the zooplankton.
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Which organisms are found in the phytoplankton and zooplankton of the littoral zone of lakes?

Which organisms are found in the phytoplankton and zooplankton of the littoral zone of lakes?

Answer : The phytoplankton’s of the littoral zone of the lakes consist of photosynthetic Protista, bacteria and algae whereas the zooplanktons include protozoans and tiny crustaceans.
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Which invertebrate and vertebrate animals are found in the littoral zone of the lake?

Which invertebrate and vertebrate animals are found in the littoral zone of the lake?

Answer : The littoral invertebrates include crustaceans, insect larvae, snails, flatworms and Hydra etc., whereas the vertebrates are the frogs, aquatic snakes and turtles etc.
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What is limnetic zone of the lake?

What is limnetic zone of the lake?

Answer : This is the open water zone away from the edge of the lake to the depth of effective light penetration.
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Name the organisms of limnetic phytoplankton?

Name the organisms of limnetic phytoplankton?

Answer : These are the cyanobacteria (blue-green algae).
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Give an explanation of profundal zone of water.

Give an explanation of profundal zone of water.

Answer : This is the zone of deep water of the lake, below the limnetic zone, beyond the reach of light penetration, whereas the common animals are black bear leopard cat deer, wolf and rhesus monkey. This zone is obviously absent in ponds and shallow lakes.
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How is the profundal zone associated with the littoral and limnetic zones?

How is the profundal zone associated with the littoral and limnetic zones?

Answer : Since the profundal zone is a dark zone, its inhabitants depend for food (detritus) on the littoral and limnetic zones.
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Enlist the decomposers and detritus feeders of the profundal zone of lakes?

Enlist the decomposers and detritus feeders of the profundal zone of lakes?

Answer : The decomposers and detritus feeders of the profundal zone are the bacteria, fungi, insect, larvae, snails and fishes.
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List adaptations in plants and animals for terrestrial ecosystem?

List adaptations in plants and animals for terrestrial ecosystem?

Answer : These adaptations are the supporting tissue, conservation of water and regulation of temperature.
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What are the supporting structures of land plants and animals?

What are the supporting structures of land plants and animals?

Answer : The supporting structures of the plants are the xylem and phloem (supporting tissues) and that of animals is the skeleton.
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Which structures of plants and animals help them regulate body temperature?

Which structures of plants and animals help them regulate body temperature?

Answer : These structures are the bark in plants and sin in animals.
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In what climatic conditions are found the temperate deciduous forests?

In what climatic conditions are found the temperate deciduous forests?

Answer : The temperate deciduous forests are found in areas with abundant evenly distributed rainfall (750 to 1500mms annual) and moderate temperature.
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What trees and animals are common in moist temperate regions of Shogran and Neelam valleys of Azad Kashmir in Pakistan?

What trees and animals are common in moist temperate regions of Shogran and Neelam valleys of Azad Kashmir in Pakistan?

Answer : The common trees in these valleys are Taxus baccata, Pinus wallichiana and Berberis lyceum, whereas the common animals are black bear, leopard cat deer wolf and rhesus monkey.
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What is the field layer of temperate deciduous forests comprised of?

What is the field layer of temperate deciduous forests comprised of?

Answer : It is comprised of grasses, other herbaceous plants and ferns.
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Enumerate the characteristics of the soil in temperate deciduous forests?

Enumerate the characteristics of the soil in temperate deciduous forests?

Answer : The soil of temperate deciduous forest is grayish brown, very fertile, rich in organic matter and has great water holding capacity.
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What are the kinds of coniferous forests and where are they located?

What are the kinds of coniferous forests and where are they located?

Answer : The coniferous forests are of two kinds, alpine and boreal, of which the former are located at high altitude and the latter at high attitude.
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