12th Class Biology Chapter 10 Evolution Short Questions Answer

biology short QA

12th Class Biology Chapter 10 Evolution Short Questions Answer

1.What was the source of hydrogen for reducing CO2 in first photosynthetic organisms?

1.What was the source of hydrogen for reducing CO2 in first photosynthetic organisms?

Answer : The first  photosythetic  organisms used hydrogen sulphide as a source  of hydrogen for reducing carbon dioxide to sugars.
Not Helpful (21)

2.Which idea is known as endosymbiont hypothesis?

2.Which idea is known as endosymbiont hypothesis?

Answer : The eukaryotic cell might have evolved when a large anaerobic(living without oxygen) amoeboid prokaryote ingested small aerobic (living without oxygen) bacteria and stabilized them instead of digesting them.This idea is known as the endosymbiont hypothesis.
Not Helpful (21)

3.What was teh second idea of Lamarck called?

3.What was teh second idea of Lamarck called?

Answer : The second idea Lamarck adopted was called the inheritance of acquired characteristics.In this concept of heredity the modifications an organism acquires during its lifetime can be passed along to its offspring e.g.the long neck of the giraffe.
Not Helpful (21)

4.What is the important turning point for evolutionary theory?

4.What is the important turning point for evolutionary theory?

Answer : The Origin fo Species convinced most biologists that species are products of evolution.An important turning point for evolutionary theory was the birth of population genetics,whixh emphasizes the extensive genetix variation within populations and recongnizes the importance genetic variation within popualtions and recongnizes the importance of quantitative characters.
Not Helpful (21)

5.How natural selection occurs?

5.How natural selection occurs?

Answer : Natural selection occurs through an interaction between the envionment and the variability ingerent in any population.
Not Helpful (21)

6.What was the statement or theorem of Hardy-Weinberg?

6.What was the statement or theorem of Hardy-Weinberg?

Answer : It states that the frequencies of alleles and genotypes in a population’s gene pool remain constant over the generations unless acted upon by agents other than sexual recombination.
Not Helpful (21)

7.Which mating is called a non-random mating?

7.Which mating is called a non-random mating?

Answer : Individuals with certain genotypes sometimes mate with one another more commonly than would be expected on a random basis.This is called non-random mating.
Not Helpful (21)

8.On what evidences Darwin’s theory of evolution was mainly based?

8.On what evidences Darwin’s theory of evolution was mainly based?

Answer : Darwin’s theory of evolution was mainly based on evidence from the geographical distribution of species and from the fossil record.
Not Helpful (21)

9.Who was Darwin’s predecessor who developed a comprehensive model that attempted to explain how life evolves?

9.Who was Darwin’s predecessor who developed a comprehensive model that attempted to explain how life evolves?

Answer : Jean Baptiste Lamarck (1744-1829).
Not Helpful (21)

10.What is Spirochete?

10.What is Spirochete?

Answer : A helical bacterium which is flexible and has periplasmic flagella is called sprochete.
Not Helpful (21)

11.Define Biogeography?

11.Define Biogeography?

Answer : The study of geographical distribution of life on earth.Biogeographers attempt to explain the factors that influence where species of plants and animals live on earth.
Not Helpful (21)

12.What are Fossils?

12.What are Fossils?

Answer : Any remains impressions or traces of organisms of a formal geological age.
Not Helpful (21)

13.Define Embryology?

13.Define Embryology?

Answer : Study of animal development from fertilized egg to formation of all major organs.
Not Helpful (21)

14.What is Molecular Biology?

14.What is Molecular Biology?

Answer : The study of biochemical structures and function of organisms at molecular level.
Not Helpful (21)

15.What does evolution refer?

15.What does evolution refer?

Answer : Evolution refers to the processes that have transformed life on earth from its earliest forms to the vast diversity that is observed today.
Not Helpful (21)

16.What is the Concept of special creation?

16.What is the Concept of special creation?

Answer : According to the theory of special creation all living things came into existence in their present forms especially and specifically created by Nature.Among the scientists who believed in divine creation was Carolus Linnaeus.
Not Helpful (21)

17.What is the Concept of Evolution?

17.What is the Concept of Evolution?

Answer : The idea that organisms might evolve through time with one type fo organism giving rise to another type of organism is called evolution.
Not Helpful (21)

18.What did Lamarck said about the use and disuse of organs?

18.What did Lamarck said about the use and disuse of organs?

Answer : Lamarck argued that those parts of the body used extensively to cope with the environment become larger and stronger while those that are not used deteriorate.
Not Helpful (21)

19.What Darwin said about Finches of Galapagos?

19.What Darwin said about Finches of Galapagos?

Answer : Among the birds Darwin collected 13 types of finches that although quite similar seemed to be different species.Some were unique to individual islands while other species were other species were distributed on two or more islands that were close together.
Not Helpful (21)

20.What was Darwin’s is idea of Origin of Species?

20.What was Darwin’s is idea of Origin of Species?

Answer : A new species would arise from an ancestral form by the gradual accumulation for adaptations to different environment,separated from original habitat by geographical barriers.Over many generations the two populations could become dissimilar enough to be designated separate species.
Not Helpful (21)

21.What was the contribution of Wallace in the development of theory of natural selection?

21.What was the contribution of Wallace in the development of theory of natural selection?

Answer : Alfred Wallace developed a theory of natural selection essentially identical to Darwin’s.Wallace’s paper along with extracts from Darwin’s unpublished 1844 essay were presented to the Linnaean Society of London on july 1,1858.
Not Helpful (21)

22.Define the theory of natural selection?

22.Define the theory of natural selection?

Answer : Nature will select the organisms whose inherited characteristics fit them best to their environment and eliminate others.
Not Helpful (21)

23.What is Neodarwinism?

23.What is Neodarwinism?

Answer : According the neodarwinism the new species evolve due to extensive genetic variation within populations and natural selection.
Not Helpful (21)

24.What does indicate that prokaryotes are ancestors of all life?

24.What does indicate that prokaryotes are ancestors of all life?

Answer : Evidence from biochemistry molecular biology and cell biology places prokaaryotes as the ancestors of all lofe and predicts that bacteria should precede all eukaryotic life in the fossil record.
Not Helpful (21)

25.What are Homologous structures?

25.What are Homologous structures?

Answer : Vestigial organs are historical remnants of structures that had important functions in ancestors but are no longer essential.For instance vermiform appendix in carnivores and man.
Not Helpful (21)

26.Name some vestigial structures in man?

26.Name some vestigial structures in man?

Answer : Ear muscles nictitating membrane vermiform appendix and coccyx in man are vestigial structures.
Not Helpful (21)

27.Different between homologous and analogous organs?

27.Different between homologous and analogous organs?

Answer : Homologous organs are functionally different but structurally alike e.g.forelimbs of man bat horse whale etc.are example of divergent evolution.Analogous organs are functionally alike but structurally different e.g.wings of bat birds and insects are examples of convergent evolution.
Not Helpful (21)

28.Differentiate between natural selection and artificial selection?

28.Differentiate between natural selection and artificial selection?

Answer : Natural selection occuurs through an interaction between the environment and the variability ingerent in any population while the selective breeding of domesticated plants and animals by man is artificial selection.
Not Helpful (21)

29.What is population?

29.What is population?

Answer : Population is a group of inter-breeding individuals belonging to a particular species and sharing a common geographic area or a population is a localized group of individuals belonging to the same species.
Not Helpful (21)

30.Define Species?

30.Define Species?

Answer : A species is a group of indiduals that have the potential to interbreed in nature.
Not Helpful (21)

31.What is Gene pool?

31.What is Gene pool?

Answer : The total aggregate of genes in a population at any one time is called the population’s gene pool.It consists of all alleles at all gene loci in all individuals of the population.
Not Helpful (21)

32.Define the Hardy-Weinberg theorem?

32.Define the Hardy-Weinberg theorem?

Answer : It stats that the frequencies of alleles and genotypes in a population’s gene pool remain constant over the generations unless acted upon by agents other than sexual recombination.
Not Helpful (21)

33.What is hardy-Weinberg equation used for?

33.What is hardy-Weinberg equation used for?

Answer : A general formula called the Hardy-Weinberg equation is used for calculating the frequencies of alleles and genotypes in populations at equilibrium.
Not Helpful (21)

34.What factors affect the gene frequency?

34.What factors affect the gene frequency?

Answer : 1)Mutation 2) Migration 3) Denetic drift 4) Non-random mating 5) Selection
Not Helpful (21)

35.Differentiate between endangered and threatened species?

35.Differentiate between endangered and threatened species?

Answer : A species which is in imminent danger of extinction throughout its range is called endangered species.A threatened species is likely to become endangered in the near future.
Not Helpful (21)

36.What are hydrothermal vents?

36.What are hydrothermal vents?

Answer : Hydrothermal vents are hot springs deep in the oceans in underwater where life may have begun.
Not Helpful (21)

37.Name any five species declared extinct in Pakistan?

37.Name any five species declared extinct in Pakistan?

Answer : Cheetah,Tiger,Asian,Lion,Indian rhino,Crocodile,Cheer pheasant.
Not Helpful (21)

Give an exact definition of evolution (of living beings). What are its believers termed as?

Give an exact definition of evolution (of living beings). What are its believers termed as?

Answer : Evoluton is the process by which genetic changes take place in populations of animals and plants over millions of years in response to environmental changes. The believers are termed as ‘evolutionists’.
Not Helpful (21)

Explain “Theory of Special Creation” (Creationism). What are its believers called as?

Explain “Theory of Special Creation” (Creationism). What are its believers called as?

Answer : “Theory of special creation” means that al the living things were created by Nature in their present form and that no changes have occurred in them since they came into existence. The believers of this theory are called as Creationists.
Not Helpful (21)

Name the earliest evolutionist.

Name the earliest evolutionist.

Answer : Aristotle was the earliest evolutionist.
Not Helpful (21)

Who published the essay on the “Principle of Population”?

Who published the essay on the “Principle of Population”?

Answer : Thomas Malthus published the essay on the “Principle of Population”.
Not Helpful (21)

What is the contribution of Georges Cuvier in biology?

What is the contribution of Georges Cuvier in biology?

Answer : Georges Cuvier worked on palaeontology and explained earth’s history by catastrophism.
Not Helpful (21)

Who published the book “Principles of Geology”?

Who published the book “Principles of Geology”?

Answer : Charles Lyell published the book “Principles of Geology”.
Not Helpful (21)

What are hydrothermal vents?

What are hydrothermal vents?

Answer : The underwater hot springs found deep in oceans, from which life might have originated according to one view, are called hydrothermal vents.
Not Helpful (21)

Which group of bacteria can tolerate temperature up to 120°C?

Which group of bacteria can tolerate temperature up to 120°C?

Answer : The group of bacteria is the archaebacteria (ancient bacteria).
Not Helpful (21)

Which were the first photosynthetic organisms? Which raw materials were used by them for photosynthesis?

Which were the first photosynthetic organisms? Which raw materials were used by them for photosynthesis?

Answer : Bacteria were the first photosynthetic organisms. They used carbon dioxide and hydrogen sulphide as raw materials for photosynthesis.
Not Helpful (21)

When was life made possible on land and how?

When was life made possible on land and how?

Answer : Life was made possible on land 420 million years ago due to the formation of a thick protective layer of ozone in the upper atmosphere.
Not Helpful (21)

Which organisms originated first, prokaryotes or eukaryotes and when?

Which organisms originated first, prokaryotes or eukaryotes and when?

Answer : Prokaryotes originated first, more than 3.5 billion years ago.
Not Helpful (21)

When did eukaryotes evolve?

When did eukaryotes evolve?

Answer : The eukaryotes evolved about 1.5 billion years ago.
Not Helpful (21)

State endosymbiont hypothesis regarding the evolution of eukaryotic cell. Who proposed this hypothesis?

State endosymbiont hypothesis regarding the evolution of eukaryotic cell. Who proposed this hypothesis?

Answer : According to endosymbiont hypothesis, the eukaryotic cell evolved when a large anaerobic amoeboid prokaryote ingested bit not digested small aerobic bacteria which developed into mitochondria. This hypothesis was proposed by Lynn Margulies.
Not Helpful (21)

How did endosymbiotic development of chloroplasts occur during the evolution of plants?

How did endosymbiotic development of chloroplasts occur during the evolution of plants?

Answer : During their evolution, ingestion of prokaryotes that resembled present-day cyanobacteria led to the endosymbiotic development of chloroplasts in plants.
Not Helpful (21)

Which are the two hypotheses regarding the evolution of the eukaryotic cell?

Which are the two hypotheses regarding the evolution of the eukaryotic cell?

Answer : These are the endosymbiont hypothesis and the membrane invagination hypothesis.
Not Helpful (21)

What was Lamarck’s theory regarding evolution based on? When was it presented?

What was Lamarck’s theory regarding evolution based on? When was it presented?

Answer : Lamarck’s theory regarding evolution was based on use and disuse of organs and the inheritance of acquired characteristics. It was presented in 1809.
Not Helpful (21)

When and where was Charles Darwin born?

When and where was Charles Darwin born?

Answer : Charles Darwin was born in 1809, in Shrewsbury in western England.
Not Helpful (21)

What was the name of the ship on which Darwin performed voyage, in which capacity?

What was the name of the ship on which Darwin performed voyage, in which capacity?

Answer : Darwin performed voyage on the ship named Beagle, as a Naturalist.
Not Helpful (21)

What the name was of eh islands which Darwin visited during his voyage and which were inhabited by finches?

What the name was of eh islands which Darwin visited during his voyage and which were inhabited by finches?

Answer : Their name was Galapagos Islands.
Not Helpful (21)

How were the theories of natural selection of Darwin and Wallace different from each other?

How were the theories of natural selection of Darwin and Wallace different from each other?

Answer : Both the theories were quite similar to each other.
Not Helpful (21)

What is struggle for existence’ in Darwin’s theory of evolution?

What is struggle for existence’ in Darwin’s theory of evolution?

Answer : Struggle for existence is the competition between various individuals of a population for survival (or in other words for necessities of life).
Not Helpful (21)

Explain “Natural Selection”?

Explain “Natural Selection”?

Answer : The survival of organisms better fitted to their environment, in the struggle for existence is called “Natural Selection”.
Not Helpful (21)

What is the main difference between the theories of Lamarck and Darwin regarding organic evolution?

What is the main difference between the theories of Lamarck and Darwin regarding organic evolution?

Answer : Lamarck proposed that the species change due to the influence of environment and the use and disuse of organs but Darwin presumed that species change due to natural selection based on hereditary variations.
Not Helpful (21)

Define population genetics?

Define population genetics?

Answer : Population genetics is the study of the number, variety and distribution of genes in a population and of the factors that influence these genes.
Not Helpful (21)

What does biogeography mean?

What does biogeography mean?

Answer : The geographical distribution of organisms is known as biogeography.
Not Helpful (21)

Which armored mammals are distributed only in America?

Which armored mammals are distributed only in America?

Answer : These are armadillos.
Not Helpful (21)

How does fossil record provide evidence of evolution?

How does fossil record provide evidence of evolution?

Answer : The study and dating of fossils help us to discover the trends in evolution such as which fossil animals (or plants) were the ancestors of what others.
Not Helpful (21)

What are fossils?

What are fossils?

Answer : The fossils are either preserved actual remains or parts of organisms that lived in ancient geological times.
Not Helpful (21)

Where are most of the fossils found?

Where are most of the fossils found?

Answer : Most of the fossils are found in sedimentary rocks.
Not Helpful (21)

Define genetic drift.

Define genetic drift.

Answer : The change in allele frequency of small population, purely by chance is called genetic drift.
Not Helpful (21)

Have any other short question related to this 12th Class Biology Chapter 10 Evolution please write down in comment section.

Related Short Questions Answer

2 comments

  1. what are hydrothermal vents

Leave a Reply

Your email address will not be published. Required fields are marked *

error: Content is protected !!