11th class physics Chapter 1 Measurements Short Question Answers

11th class physics Chapter 1 Measurements Short Question Answers

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1.Name several repetitive phenomena occurring in nature which could serve as reasonable time standards?
Any natural phenomenon that repeats itself exactly same time interval can be used as a measure of time.The measurement is based upon the counting of repetitions (i) Rotation of earth around the sun provides us the natural phenomena.It repeats the length of the day which serves as alternative time standard from earliest time.Upto 1960 one second was defined to be 1/86400 of a mean solar year. (ii) The change of shadow of an object in the sum can serve as measure of time. (iii)Oscillating pendulums can also be used to standardize time by finding the frequencies. (iv)The rotation of planets in s solar system can serve as measure of time.
2.Give the drawbacks to use the period of a pendulum as time standard?
(i) The time period of a simple pendulum depends upon its length and value of’g’at any place.The period of the pendulum of fixed length may be different at different paces due to the change of ‘g’.As the value of ‘g’ changes at different places so it will increase or decrease the time period of the pendulum. (ii) The summer season can also affect the time period of the pendulum.As the temperature increases the length of the pendulum woll increase.Thus the time period will also increase. (iii) Surrounding atmosphere or air resistance may affect time period of simple pendulum in the light of above said drawbacks the time period of a pendulum cannot be used as time standard.
3.Why do we find it useful to have two units for the amount of substance the kilogram and the mole?
Kilogram and mole are the two units for the amount of substance.Both are useful in different types of substances. Kilogram:- It is useful to use kilogram as unit whenever we want to consider a specific amount of mass without considering the number of microscopic atoms or molecules present in it. e.g. all mass measurements in a Physics or engineering laboratories. Mole:- It is useful to use mole as a unit when we want to consider a fixed number of atoms or molecules of a system e.g. in case of gases.Mole represents a fixed number of molecules/atoms of any substance
4.The period of simple pendulum is measured by a stop watch.What type of errors are possible in the time period?
When the period of simple pendulum is measured by a stop watch two types of errors are possible as given below. (i) Systematic error (ii) Personal error Systematic error:- This error due to the fault in the measuring instrument like stop watch or vernier calipers.It can occur due to zero error in the stop watch or poor calibration of stopwatch.This error can be removed by applying correction factor. Personal error:- This error takes place due to the faulty procedure of observer or negligence and inexperience of a person.Error in timing occurs when the stop watch is started and when it is stopped.
5.Does a dimensional analysis given any information on constant of proportionality that may appear in an algebraic expression?
Dimensional analysis does not give any information about the constant of proportionality or dimensionless constant k. This constant k can be determined experimentally or the theoretically.
6.Define random and systematic error?
Random Error:- Random error is said to take place when repeated measurements of the quantity give different values under the same conditions.Its is due to some unknown reasons. Systematic Error:- The systematic error occur when all the measurements of a particular quantity are affected equally.These give consistent difference in the readings.
7.How are random error and systematic error reduced?
Random effect can be reduced by taking the average of several readings. Systematic error can be reduced by comparing the instruments systematic error is reduced by applying a correction factor to all the readings taken on an instrument.
8.Distinguish between base units and derived units?
Base units:- In SI a cartain system of units is formed by defining the units of seven physical quantities.These units are called vase units.Such unit is not derived from other unit i.e. independent of other units. Derived Units:- SI units of all other physical quantities derived from the base and supplementary units are called derived units.For example the units of velocity acceleration force work and momentum etc. Are the derived units because they are derived from the base units and combination of two or more base units.
9.Name the supplementary units?
There are two supplementary units which are named as (i) Plane angle (red) (ii) Solid Angle (Sr)
10.What are two types of errors?
There are two major types of errors (i) Random error (ii) systematic error
11.How is degree of random error estimated?
The degree of random error is estimated by finding the parentage of possible error.
12.What is scientific notation?
Number are expressed in standard from called scientific notation which use power of ten.There should be only one non-zero digit left of decimal.
13.What do you understand by a unit?
It is considered as a standard which is used for the measurement of physical quantity.
14.Define significant figures?
In any measurement the accurately known digits and the first doubtful digit are called significant. All digits 1,2,3,4,5,6,7,,8,9 are called significant figures.However zeros may not be significant.
15.Under what conditions zeros are significant?
A zero between two significant figures is significant. In decimal fraction zeros to the right of significant figure are significant.
16.Under what conditions zeros are not significant?
When the first non-zero digit occurs after the decimal all zeros on left of the significant figure are not significant. When there is no decimal point all zeros occurring on right of a given number are not significant.
17.What is Rounding off data process?
It is a process in which the number of significant figures in a measured desired quantity is reduced to a desires value.
18.What do you mean by system international?When was it established?
The system International is built from three kinds of units base units supplementary units and derived units.The international system was established in 1960 by the international committee.
19.What do you mean by prefixes?
The terms used for the multiples and sub-multiples for various units are called prefixes.For example 2×10-11sec here 10-11 is a prefix.
20.What do you mean by dimensions of physical quantity?
Each basic measurable physical quantity represented by a specific symbol written within square brackets is called a dimension. The dimensions of a physics quantity show the relation between this quantity and base quantity.
21.When is the equation said to be dimensionally correct?
If the dimensions of both the sides are the same then the equation is said to be dimensionally correct.
22.How is the uncertainty in the time period of a vibrating body found?
The uncertainty in the time period of a vibrating body is found by dividing the least count of timing device by the number of vibrations.The uncertainty can be reduced by counting large number of vibrations.
23.Is it possible to have two quantities with the same dimensions but different found?Give for examples?
Yes,two quantities can have the same dimensions but different units.For example,(i) Work and torque (ii) Momentum and impulse.
24.Distinguish between Biological sciences and Physical sciences?
Those sciences which deal with the study of living things are called Biological sciences.Those sciences which are concerned with the studs of non-living things are called physical sciences.
25.Which areas in the study of Physics involve describe briefly?
Physics is the study of entire physical world.First the world of the extremely large sized things Radio telescopes now gather information from the far side of the universe.

Second the world of the extremely small sized things that is of the particles is such as electrons protons and neutrons.
Third It is the world of middle-sized things from molecules at one extreme to the Earth at the other.This is all fundamental physics which is the heart of science.

Radian:The angle between two radii of a circle formed by an arc equal to its radius is called radian. Steradian: The solid angle subtended at the centre if a sphere by an area of its surface equal to the square of radius of the sphere is called steradian.
27.Write down the two points which should be kept in mind while using units?
First the choice of a standard and second the establishment of a procedure for comparing the quantity to be measured with the standard so that a number and a unit are determined as the measure of that quantity.
28.How will you differentiate error from uncertainties?
Error : They can take place duets (i) negligence of a person (ii)The faulty apparatus (iii) inappropriate method or technique. Uncertainties: The uncertainties is also usually described as an error in an instrument.It can take place due to (i)Inadequacy limitation of an instrument . (ii)Natural variations of the object being measured . (iii)Natural defect of perron’s senses.
29.What are significant figures?
Those digits which are known to be reliable in a measured quantity are called the significant figures
30.State the principle of homogeneity of dimensions?
In order to check the correctness of an equation,we show that the quantities on both sides of the equation are the same irrespective of the form of the formula.This is called the principle of homogeneity.
31.What types of natural phenomenon could serve as alternative time standards?
Any natural phenomenon that repeats itself after exactly same time interval can be used as a measure of time.The measurement is based upon the counting of repetitions.Rotation of earth around the sun provides us the natural phenomenon.It represents the length of the day which serves as alternative time standard from earliest times.Upto 1960 one second was defined to be 1/86400 of a mean solar day. The change of shadow of an object in the sun can serve as measure of time. Oscillating pendulum can also be used to standardize time by finding the frequencies. The rotation of planets in a solar system can serve as a measure of time.
No radian and steradian are two supplementary units of SI.Radian is used for plane angles and steradian for solid angles.These have not been considered as basic units of SI.
33.What does the word micro signify in the words micro wave oven?
The prefix micro in the words microwave oven means that elector-magnetic waves produced inmcro wave oven have wave lengths of the order of 10-6m i.e. micrometer.
34.What is the importance of standard units in physical science?
The standard units are very important in physical science because the scientists have to make the exact and accurate measurements of physical quantities from their observations and experiments during their research work.Therefore they released the need of standard units in the field of engineering medicine and research etc.Measurement laws of science from their observations and accurate measurements of various physical quantities.Thus standard units played a important role in the development of science.
35.What are SI units of plane angle and solid angle?
In SI the unit of plane angle is radian. SI unit of solid angle is steradian.

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