11th Class Biology Chapter 14 Transport Short Questions Answers

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11th Class Biology Chapter 14 Transport Short Questions Answers Below

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1. What pathways are taken during absorption of water and minerals?
i) Symplast ii) Apoplast iii) Vacuolar
2. What is apoplast pathway?
It is pathway involving system of adjacent cell wall which is containous throughout the plant roots (except for the casparian strips in the root endodermis). In ht e roots apoplast pathway becomes discontinuous in the endodermis due to the presence of Casparian strips.
3. What is casparian strip?
The casparian strip is belt of thickening on the radial and transverse walls of endodermal cells.
4. Define facilitated diffusion?
Some nutrients are carried from the soil to the epidermal cells of roots through their cell membrane with the help of carrier proteins. This process is called facilitated diffusion.
5. What is kPa?
kPa =1000 Pascals- which is the pressure exerted by a vertical force on one Newton on an area of 1 metre square.
6. What is pressure potential?
The pressure exerted due to endosmosis among by the protoplast against the cell wall is called pressure potential.
7. How does cohesion differ from adhesion?
The cohesion is the force of attraction among the water molecules while adhesion is the force of attraction between water molecules and walls of the xylem cells.
8. Why are hydathodes?
Hydathodes are modified stomata and located near terminal tracheids around the tips and margin of leaf.
9. Name of hormones involved in stomatal opening?
This hormone is called abscisic acid.
10. What do you mean by bulk or mass flow?
The movement of water due to pressure difference between two locations is called bulk or mass flow.
11. “There is no specialized transport system in planarian”. Why give two reasons?
The reasons are: (i) The body of planaria is flat, and provides greater surface area for the exchange of material, between the body and the environment. (ii) The branches of intestine give many smaller branches which end in intestinal caecae. These caecae reach near almost every cell of the body.
12. Differentiate between single circuit and double circuit heart?
If only deoxygenated blood passes through the chambers of the heart then such a heart is called single circuit heart, But if both oxygenated and deoxygenated blood through the chambers of the heart then is the heart is said to be double circuit heart.
13. What is the difference between granulocytes and agranulocytes?
a). Granulocyte: Granulocytes have granules in their cytoplasm and their nucleus is Characteristically 2-4 lobed. They constitute about 71 to 72% of total white blood cells count, in normal person and include neutrophils and basophils. (b). Agranulocytes: They have clear cytoplasm (no granules), and the nucleus does not have lobed appearance, but is rounded Agranulocytes include monocytes (B and T).
14. Name some disorders relating to blood?
i) Leucaemia, ii) Thalassaemia, iii) Oedema
15. What is the difference between stroke and brain haemorrhage?
Stroke: If the normal flow if blood is blocked by an embolus (or a locally formed thrombus, in a blood vessel in the brain, and causes necrosis, or death, of the surrounding neural tissue (owing to lack of O2) the condition is called a stroke or cerebral infarction.Brain haemorrhage: The brain haemorrhage results from bursting of any of the arteries supplying the brain.
16. What is lacteals?
In the intestine, the branches of lymph capillaries, within villi, are called lacteals.
17. Differentiate between active and passive immunity?
The immunity that develops in response to vaccines is called active immunity. Its response is not immediate but long lasting . On the other hand passive immunity develops in response to antisera. Its response is immediate but not long lasting.
18. Why lymphocyte T and B have been given these names?
Lymphoid T and B have been named due to their relationship with Thymus gland, and Bursa of Fabricius respectively.
19.What is Bursa of Fabricius?
Bursa of Fabricius is lymphoid structure present in the wall of cloaca of young birds from where B-lymphoctyes were discovered to have role in immune system.
20. How cell-mediated response differs from humoral immune response?
Cell- mediated response: In this case T-lymphocytes recognize antigen then combat micro-organisms and / or affect the rejection of foreign tissue (in case of tissue transplant). Humoral Immune response: In humoral immune response B- lymphocytes recognize antigen and form plasma cell clone. These plasma cell synthesis and liberate antibodies into the blood plasma and tissue fluid. Here antibodies attach to the surface of bacteria and speed up their phagocytosis, or combine with them neutralise toxins produced by micro-organisms, by producing antitoxins.
21. What is difference between guttation and bleeding?
Guttation or exudation is loss of liquid water through water secreting glands called hydathodes. Sometimes it so happens that certain plants, when cut, or otherwise wounded, show a flow of sap from the cut ends or surfaces quite often with a considerable force. This phenomenon is commonly called bleeding.
22. Differentiate between pulmonary and systemic circulation?
Pulmonary circulation. The circulation of deoxygenated blood by pulmonary arch from right ventricle to lung, and the oxygenated blood from the lungs to left auricle (atrium) via pulmonary veins is called. Pulmonary circulation. Systemic circulation. The systemic arch distributes blood to different parts of the body, and then the blood from the body returns to the heart, in the right atrium via precaval and postcaval. This is systemic circulation.
23. What is pus?
Macrophages and neutrophils feed on bacteria invaders or other foreign cells, including cancer cells. They typically die in the process, and their dead bodies accumulated and contribute to the white substance called pus, seen at infection sites.
24. Define imbibition.
The cell wall components especially cellulose, pectin and lignin can components do not dissolve in water, this is called imbibitions.
25. What are root hairs? Give their functions?
The root bear a dense cluster of tiny hair like structures which are extensions of epidermal cells of roots. These are the root hairs. Root hairs are in fact the sits where most of the uptake of water and minerals takes place.
26. Dedine osmosis?
The movement of water molecules from a region of their higher concentration to the region their low concentration through a partially permeable membrane is called osmosis.
27. differentiate between endosmosis and exosmosis?
If water moves by osmosis into a cell the process is called endosmosis. If water moves out of the cell by osmosis, the process is called exosmosis.
28. Define symplast pathway?
In this the system of interconnected protoplasts in the root cells. The cytoplasm of neighboring cells (Protoplasts) is connected with one another plasmodesmata.
29. What is vacuolar pathway?
In this pathway water moves from vacuole to vacuole through neingbouring cells processing the simplest and applets in the process and moving through cell membranes by osmosis. Water moves passively down a concentration gradient.
30. Define water potential?
Water molecules process kinetic energy which means that in liquid or gaseous from they move about rapidly and randomly from one place to another. So geater the concentration of te water molecules in a system greater is the total kinetic energy of water molecules. This is called water potential.
31. What factors determine water potential?
In plant cells two fectors determine water potential.
i) Solute concentration (solute potential or ψs)
ii) Pressure generated when water enters and inflates plant cells (pressure potential or ψp)
32. Define osmotic potential?
The osmotic (solute) potential ψs is a measure of the change in water potential (ψw) of a system due to the pressure of solute molecules. Ψs is always negative.
33. Differentiate between plasmolysis and deplasmolysis?
When a living cell is placed in a solution having lower water potential then that of the cell, water will move from cell to solution causing shirnkiage of protoplast. The cell is called plasmolysed cell and the process is called plasmoltsis. If this plasmolysed cell is placed in distilled water ( which has highest water potential) the water molecules would move from distilled water through differentially permeable cell membrane into the cell, and the cell would come to its original form. The phenomenon is called deplasmolysis and the cell is called deplasmolysed.
34. What is osmoregulation?
Osmoregulation is the mechanism employed by animals to maintain the amount of water and salts in their cells to a constant or nearly constant levels.
35. What is accent of sap?
Water and dissolved minerals are carried or pulled upwards towards the levels through xylem tissue. This is called ascent of sap.
36. Name the processes involved in ascent of sap?
1. Cohesion Tension Theory, 2. Root Pressure 3.Imbibition
37. What is transpiration?
The evaporation of water from the aerial parts of the plant especially through stomata of leaves is a process called transpiration.
38. Define root pressure?
Root pressure is an osmotic or hydrostatic pressure created in the absence of transpiration due to accumulation of ions from surrounding cells into xylem abd causes ascent of sap.
39. Define guttation or exudation.
Guttation or exudation is loss of liquid water through water secreting glands called hydathodes.
40. What are inhibitors of root pressure?
The process of root pressure is inhibited by respiratory inhibitors such as cyanide lack of oxygen and low temperature.
41. What is antivenum serum?
In this case of snake bit venom passive immunity is produced by the antitoxins-so the serum is called antivenom serum.
42. What is bleeding?
Sometimes it so happens that certain plants, when cut, or otherwise wounded, show a flow of sap from the cut ends or surface quite often with a consirerable force. This phenomenon is commonly called bleeding.
43. Define cuticular transpiration?
The loss of water in the form of water vapours through the cuticle of leave is called cuticular transpiration.
44. What are different types of transpiration?
. i) Cuticular transpiration ii) Lenticular transpiration iii) Stomatal transpiration
45. What is lenticular transpiration?
Lenticular transpiration is the loss of water vapours through lenticels present in the stem of some plants.
46. Define stomatal transpiration?
The transpiration in which the water vapours escape through the stomata is called stomatal transpiration.
47. What is lenticels?
Lenticels are aerating pores formed in the bark through which exchange of gases takes place, and water is lost in the form of water vapours (transpiration).
48. Differentiate between isobilateral and dorsiventral leaves?
In isobilateral (both sides similar) leaves the stomata are present in both upper and lower epidermis e.g. lily maize leaf. In dorsiventral leaves the stomata are confined to only the lower epidermis.
The stomata close by reverse process, involving passive diffusion of K+ form guard cells following by water moving out by osmosis.
The stomata close by reverse process, involving passive diffusion of K+ form guard cells following by water moving out by osmosis.
50. What are the controlling fetors for K+ influx? Or what controls the movement of K+ into and out of the guard cells?
(i). Carbon dioxide level
(ii) Blue light
(iii) Biological clock    
What do you know about active transport?

Transfer of substances from region where its concentration is low to where it is high especially through a membrane accomplished by means of expenditure of energy from metabolism. Probably all cells can do this.

How much of the total surface area of the root is provided by the root hairs?

Root hairs provide 67% of the total area of the root.

Which two factors determine the water potential in plant cells?

These factors are solute potential and the pressure potential.

What is pericardial sinus in cockroach?

It is the cavity in which lies 13-chambered heart of cockroach.

Write down the kinds of agranulocytes?

These are monocytes and lymphocytes.

Which veins bring blood from the legs?

The iliac veins bring blood from the legs.

What ushaemorrhage?

The discharges of the blood from the blood vessels is called haemorrhage.

What us an antiserum?

The antiserum is serum, containing antibodies.

What are blood vessels?

The vessels in which blood flows are called blood vessels. There are three types of blood vessels.

  1. Arteries
  2. Veins
  3. Capillaries
Define osmotic or solute potential?

It is the component of water potential that takes into account the concentration of solutes in the cell. It is represented by Ѱs and is always negative.

Where are the old and worn out red blood cells destroyed?

The old and worn out red blood cells are destroyed in the spleen and liver.

What is the condition of high blood pressure in man known as?

It is known as hypertension.

What is thrombus?

A solid mass or plug of blood clot in a blood vessel is called thrombus.

Why thalassemia is also called Cooley’s anemia?

It is named after an American Pediatrician, Thomas B Cooley who investigated on it.

How much water is found in human blood plasma?

The human blood contains about 90% of water.

Who proposed “pressure flow theory” and when?

Ernest Munch proposed pressure flow theory’ in 1930.

Which parts of the root serve to absorb water and salts from the soil?

These parts are the root hairs.

Name the components of the cell wall which can imbibe water?

These are the cellulose pectin and lignin etc.

Define transpiration?

The loss of water from the surface of the plant in the form of water vapors is known as transpiration.

How does the rise of temperature affect the rate of transpiration in plants?

The rate of transpiration doubles for every temperature rise of about 10C within certain limits.

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