11th Class Biology Chapter 12 Nutrition Short Question Answers

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11th Class Biology Chapter 12 Nutrition Short Question Answers Below

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1.Why digestive system of cockroach is better adapted than those of Hydra and Planaria?
Cockroach has a tubular digestive system having mouth for digestion and anus or cloace for egestion. It is more efficient system than sac like digestive system of Hydra or Planaria, in having specialized organs or partitions for efficient digestion and absorption of food.
2. What is secretin?
Secretin is a hormone which is produced by the intestinal mucosa on the entry of acidic food from stomach. The acidity stimulates secretin production in Duodenum and secretin is carried by blood to pancreas which is stimulated to produce pancreatic juice. Secretin also inhibits gastric secretion.
3. What is heart burn?
Heat burn, or Pyrosis, is a painful of burning sensation in the chest usually associated with the back flush of acidic chime into the oesophgus . This is due to overeating, eating fatty food, lying down immediately after a meal, consuming too much alcohole or caffeine, smoking.
4. What is bolus?
As a result of mastication, the softened, partly digested slimy food mass is rolled into small oval lump called bolus.
5. What is the need of nutrients in our body?
All organisms need nutrients for the maintenance of their lives.Certain nutrients such as carbohydrates fats and proteins provide energy and also raw materials for protoplasm synthesis.Other nutrients such as water electrolytes minerals and vitamins are essential to the metabolic processes.
6. What is chlorosis?
deficiency of chlorophyll is called chlorosis. It is caused due to deficiency of magnesium.
7. Name different modes of heterotrophic nutrition?
1. Saprophytic nutrition 2. Parasitic nutrition 3.Symbiotic nutrition
8. Differentiate between capillaries and lacteals?
Capillaries are the blood vessels of blood circulatory system which have smallest while lacteals are the terminal vessels of lymphatic system found in villi of instance.
9. Name enzyme found in saliva?
Amylase (ptyalin)
10. Give at least two example of endoparasites?
1. Entamoeba histolytica, 2. Tapeworm.
11. What is the advantage of a digestive tract as compared with a digestive cavity?
The digestive tract is better adapted as compared to the digestive cavity. It is because digestive tract has different organs or parts where found is digested in different ways.
12. Why do malnourished children usually have large abdomens?
Malnourished children get deficiency of proteins and accumulation of water which weaken and loosen the abdominal muscles. That is why malnourished children usually have large abdomens.
13. What are functions of human liver?
Four important functions of the liver are to. i). Produce bile that emulsifies fat. ii) Convert end products of digestion into other molecules. iii) Convert toxic substance, to less toxic compound urea, with is then excreted by kidneys.
14. What measure should be taken to avoid food poisoning?
Infection is most likely if unpasteurized milk is drunk or if meat is not properly cooked. The liquid that escapes during defrosting frozen meat contains Salmonella bacteria. The dishes and utensils while the meat is defrosting must not be allowed to come in contact with any other food.
15. Can we get along without large intestine?
We cannot get along without large intestine because large intestine plays some important functions such as absorption of water and salts; and harbour bacteria with synthesize vitamins especially vitamin k.
16. Define nutrition?
The total sum of all the process involved in the talking in and utilization of elements by which growth, repair and maintenance of activities in the organism are accomplished is called nutrition.
17. Distinguish between saprophytic and parasitic modes of life?
In saprophytic mode of life, organisms (monotropa, Neottia) feed on dead and decaying matter such as dead leaves in the soil or rotting tree trunks. They produce extra-cellular enzymes, which digest the decaying matter and then absorb the soluble product back into their cells. In parasitic mode of life, organisms (puccinia , Dodder etc.) live in or on other organisms. They become attached to their host and penetrate suckers for nourishment.
18. What are autotrophs?
They can exit in an environment which has only organic substances because they can prepare their own organic compounds from the inorganic raw material present in the surrounding media. It means that they produce their own sugars, lipids, proteins etc., from carbon dioxide, water and nitrates.
19. What are heterotrophs?
They cannot manufacture organic compounds from simple inorganic nutrients so they obtain these compound from the environment in the form of food.
20. What are nutrients?
The food or any substance that supplies the body with elements.
21. What are advantages and disadvantages of the parasitic node of life compared with that o a free living organism?
Advantages i) They get ready made food (simple sugars, amino acids etc) from their host. ii) They get shelter in their host. Disadvantages i) They depend on their host for food and shelter. ii) They have no complete their life cycle rapidly before the death of the host.
22. Why is digestion necessary?
Digestion is necessary because during digestion complex food particles are broken down into simpler substances which can easily be absorbed and assimilated e.g. are converted into amino acid, carbohydrates into simple sugar and fats into fatty acids and glycerols.
23. Describe what happens to a meal containing fats, carbohydrates and proteins while it is in the stomach of man?
When a meal containing fats, carbohydrates and proteins reach the stomach, each of the complex food particles are treated differently e.g., proteins are digested by the action of enzyme pepsin but fats carbohydrates, that has been started in the buccal cavity by the enzyme amylase, continues.
24. What is holozoic nutrition?
In holozoic nutrition the food is taken into the body where it is digested into smaller soluble molecules which can be absorbed and assimilated. The term holozoic is applied to mainly free- living animals which have specialized digestive tract (alimentary canal) in which these processes occur. Most animals and insectivorous plants are holozoic.
25. How does the digestive tract of herbivores differ from those of carnivores?
In general, herbivores have longer alimentary canals relative to their body size than carnivores. The almighty canals of many herbivores such as horses, cattle etc., have special fermentation chambers where symbiotic bacteria and protozoa have. These microorganisms have enzymes that can digest cellulose for the herbivores. The carnivores have shorter digestive tracts which are sufficient for digesting meat and absorbing nutrients from this diet.
26. What prevents the wall of stomach from being digested?
A coating of mucus secreted by the epithelial cells helps protect the stomach lining from being digested by the pepsin and hydrochloric acid. Another reason is that the pepsin is secreted in an inactive form called pepsinogen.
27. What specialized features of your small intestine account for the efficient absorption of digested foodstuffs?
The structure of small intestine fits its absorptive function. The large folds of the lining have fingerlike villi, whose cells have microscopic microvilli, all greatly increasing the surface area. In the core of each villus is a network of capillaries and a lacteal that take up and distribute absorbed nutrients.
28. How we can control obesity?
Obesity can be controlled by: i) taking balanced diet according to the demand for the body. ii)avoiding overeating . iii) taking proper exercise.
29. What is symbiotic nutrition ?
It is a mutual nutrition organisms living in association with one another e.g., lichen and mycorrhiza.
30. What is lichen?
The lichen is made of a fungus and an algae. The algae makes food by photosynthesis, while the fungus supplies water and minerals and also protection against desiccation.
31. What is mycorrhiza?
Mycorrhiza is an association between a fungus and root of higher plants (about 95%). The fungal hyphae dramatically increase the amount of soil contact and total surface area for absorption and help in the direct absorption of phosphorus, zinc, copper and other nutrients from the soil into pathogens. The plant , on the other hand, supplies organic carbon to fungal hyphae.
32. What are nodules?
Leguminous plants (in which fruit is a legume e.g., pea, gram etc,) have swelling, called nodules, on their roots, which contain nitrogen fixing bacteria of the genus Rhizobium. The bacteria supply the plant with fixed nitrogen, and the plant provides the bacteria with carbohydrates and other organic compounds.
33. What are insectivorous plants?
All of the insectivorous plants are true autotrophs, but when they capture prey, their growth becomes rapid. Therefore, they supplement their organic diet with organic compounds which are obtained by trapping and digesting insects and small animals. Apparently. Nitrogenous compound of animal body are beneficial to these plants. In some plants the trapped insects are decomposed by enzyme secreted by the leaves.
34. Give some examples of insectivorous plants?
i) Pitcher plant(Sarracenia pupurea) ii) Venus-fly-trap( Dionaea muscipula) iii) Sundew (Drosera intermedia)
34. What are detritivores?
The animals which feed on detritus i.e., organic debris from decomposing plants and animals, are known as detritivores e.g., earthworm.
35. What are herbivores?
Animals that food on plants are known as herbivores. Insects, reptiles, birds and mammals are typical herbivores.
36. What are the important groups of herbivorous mammals?
The rodents and ungulates are two important groups of herbivorous mammals. The rodents include squirrel,porcupine, cavy etc., while ungulates include hoofed grazing animals such as horses, cattle and sheep.
37. What special features are shown by the teeth of herbivorous mammals?
In herbivorous mammals the premolars and molars have large grinding surface. There is a large gap (called diastema) between the incisors and premolars as canines are missing. In grazing and browsing herbivores i.e., deer and sheep there are no upper incisors.
38. What are carnivores?
Animals that food on other animals are called carnivores. The carnivores are actually predators as they capture and readily kill live animals for their foods.
39. Give examples of carnivores?
Cats, dogs, lions, panther, seals, walruses etc, are the common examples of carnivorous mammals. Sharks hawks, spiders and snakes are also carnivores.
40. What special features are shown by the earth of carnivorous mammals?
They have large canine teeth for catching and tearing the prey. Incisors, premolars, and molars are all adapted for cutting flesh, cracking bones and reducing the chunks (large pieces) to size suitable for swallowing.
41. What are omnivores?
The animals which eat both plant and animals food are known as omnivores.
42. Give examples of omnivores?
Crows, cockroaches, rats, red fox, bears, pigs, raccoons, and humans are examples of omnivores.
43. What are the filter feeders?
The aquatic animals that filter the water and digest particles that they obtain from it are known as filter feeders, e.g., mussels, baleen whale.
44. What the fluid feeders?
When the food ingested in liquid form, the animals are known as fluid feeders.
45. Give some examples of fluid feeders?
Aphids suck the phloem juices out of the green stems by inserting their delicate stylets.
46. How does female mosquito get food?
The female mosquito is also a fluid feeders because it sucks blood from the skin capillaries by piercing the skin with the help of tubular mouth parts.
47. What are macrophagous feeders?
Animals, scraping and seizing prey to the common methods of macrophagous feeding.
48. How does snail show the scraping feeding?
The garden snail (Helix) feed by using rasping organ, the radula. Leaves are held by the lips of the snail. The radula moves back and forth over the leaves with its teeth scraping the food. In this way tiny fragments of leave are obtained which are gradually pushed backward the pharynx.
49. What is parasite?
A parasite is an organism that lives upon or within another organism, called the host, for obtaining its food.
50. Differentiate between obligate and facultative parasites?
In the organisms live parasitically at all times, it is said to be an obligate parasite. On the other hand if organisms are capable of living partially on the host at some times, it is said to be facultative parasite.
Name two animals which possess a sac like digestive system ?

These animals are Hydra and Pslanaria.

How does Amoeba engulf solid food particles?

The amoeba engulfs solid food particles with the help of pseudopodia.

What is most appropriate name for digestive cavity of Hydra?

It is the coelenteron.

Name the opening through which undigested food is ejected in Hydra and the planaria?

It is the mouth.

Which parts are included in the fore-gut of cockroach?

These are mouth, cavity, pharynx, crop and gizzard.

What is botulism? What is its cause?

The severe form of food poisoning is called botulism. Its cause is a bacterium known as Clostridium botulinum.

Define obesity?

The deposition of abnormal amount of fat on the body is termed as obesity.

In which machine form is trypsin secreted? How is it activated?

Trypsin is secreted in the inactive form of trypsinogen which is activated by an enzyme, enter kinase, secreted by the duodenum.

Explain heart burn or pyros is?

It is a painful burning sensation in the chest usually associated with the back flush of acidic chime into the oesophagus.

How do the farmers replenish the deficiency of nutrient salts?

The deficiency of nutrient salts is replenished by adding animal manure, sewage sludge or artificial chemical fertilizers to the soil.

Explain a predation?

A predator is an animal which captures and readily kills other animals for its food.

Define detritus

Detritus is the organic debris derived from the decomposing plants and animals.

Why some people develop intestinal gas and diarrhea by consuming milk products?

Many humans develop intestinal gas and diarrhea by consuming milk products because they lack the enzymes for digesting lactose in milk.

Write down the pH of fresh and stale human saliva?

The pH of the fresh human saliva is about 8 and that of the stale saliva is 6.

Define dyspepsia. What are its symptoms?

Imperfect digestion is called dyspepsia. Its symptoms are abdominal discomfort, flatulence, heartburn, nausea and vomiting.

How is constipation caused in man?

Constipation may be caused due to excessive absorption of water through the large intestine.

What are piles or haemonhoids?

These are masses of dilated, tortuous veins in the anorectal mucosa which bleed during bowl movements.

How are gallstones formed in the gall bladder?

The gallstones are formed in the gall bladder due to the precipitation of cholesterol, secreted by the liver.

What are the functions of the enzymes amino-peptidase and erepsin of the intestinal juice?

The amino-peptidase converts poly-peptidase into dipeptides whereas the erepsin splits dipeptides into amino acid.

What is the emulsification of fats? Which secretion emulsifies fats?

The breaking down of fats into small globules is called emulsification. It is brought about by the bile.

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