11th Class Biology Chapter 9 Kingdom Plantae Short Question Answers

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11th Class Biology Chapter 9 Kingdom Plantae Short Question Answers Below

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1. What do you understand from phylogenetic system of classification?
A system of classification in which groups were supposed to foreshadow (predict) the natural relationships among living organisms and their mode of origin is called phylogenetic system of classification.
2. Name of major division of kingdom plantae?
Division: Bryophyta- (non-vascular plants) Division: Tracheophyta- (vascular plants)
3. What is alternation of heteromorphic generations?
The phenomenon is the life cycle of plants in which they have morphologically different gametophyte and sporophyta generations that alternate with each other.
4. Define Bryophytes?
Definition of Bryophytes Bryophytes can be defined more precisely as follows: “Vascular system absent, gametophyte dominant, sporophyte attached to gametophyte; homosporous”.
5. Give four examples of psilopsida, two of living and two of extinct genera?
Extinct genera are, Cooksonia and Psilophyton while living genera are Psilotum and Tmesipeteris.
6. What is planation?
The arrangement of unequal dichotomies (brabches) in one plane is termed as planation .
7. Name the classes of pteropsida?
Class Filicieae Ferns Class Gymnospermae Naked- seed plants Class Angiospermae Flowing plants
8. What is rhizome?
An underground absorptive part of the stem is called rhizome.
9. What are the uses of Bambusa?
Bambusa (bamboo) are used as building for the thatching (roof- coveringof straw, etc.) huts, making boats, carts, pipes, etc. and the spilt stem are woveninto mats, baskets, fans, hats, course umbrella. Leaves are also given to horses as a cure of cough and cold etc.
10. What is indeterminate growth?
At the junction of foot and spore producing region there ia a band of meristematic tissue. This tissue keeps on adding cell towards the sporogenous region during the formation, maturation and dispersal of spores from the opposite end. Due to the fast growth rate of this meristematic tissue the sporophyte keeps on increasing in length for an indefinite period of time. This type of growth is called indeterminate growth.
11. What is antherozoid?
Male gametes produced by antheridia are called antherozoids which are motile and always produced in large number.
12. What do you mean by heterogamy?
Formation of different types of gametes is called heterogamy.
13. What are lodicules ?
The highly reduced perianth found is family gramineae is called lodicules.
14. What are ornamental plants? Give some examples?
A large number of plants are grown in gardens, parks and lawns for their beautiful and scented flowers. Perhaps the most widely cultivated gens for decorative purpose is Rosa, Rosa. Other examples of ornamental plants are: Mimosa pudica, Acacia melanoxylon. Agrostis, Poa, Festuca, Bauhinia variegate (Kachnar), Cassia fistula (Amaltas), Parkinsonia, etc.
15. What are non- essential parts of flowers? Why they are said to be non- essential?
The sepals and petals are non- essential or non- reproductive parts. They are said to be non- essential as they are not involved in reproduction.
16. What are classes of division Bryophyta?
Class                                     Hepaticopsida                                      Liverworts
Class                                     Bryopsida                                              Mosses
Class                                    Anthoceropsida                                    Hornworts.
17. Name the subdivisions of Division Tracheophyta- (Vascular plants).
Sub division  :          psliopsida                  Whisk ferns
Sub division   :         Lycopsida                   Club mosses
Sub division    :        Sphenopsida              Horse tails
Sub division     :       Pteropsida                  Ferns, seed plants
18. What were the first plants to colonize land? From where they have evolved?
The first plants to colonize land were the Bryophytes. They are generly thought to have evolved from green algae.
19. How materials transport in bryophytes?
Only the process of diffusion help in the transportation of water and minerals as well as in transportation of prepared food and other substance.
20. What are Amphibious plants of the world?
The Bryophytes are said to be the amphibians of the plant world because they cannot live away from water. They need water for reproduction.
21. What are rhizoids?
These are absorbing and anchoring organs, found in fungi, mosses and some Liverworts.
22. What type of sex organs are present in bryophytes?
Multicellular male and female sex organs i.e., Antheridia and Archegonia are born in gametophyte either on same or different plants. These sex organs are protected by a sterile covering of cells.
23. What do you know about the gametes of bryophytes?
Gametes are produced by mitosis. Male gametes produced by antheridia are called antherozoid which are motile and always produced in large number. Female gametes formed within Archegonia are termed as eggs. A single egg formed in each archegonium.
24. How does fertilization occur in bryophytes?
Fertilization takes place in water. Antherozoids (n) are attracted towards Archegonia (n) chemotactically . A single antherozoid fuses with an egg (n) thus accomplishing fertilization which results in the formation of the diploid zygote (2n)
25. What do you know about the zygote and embryo of bryophyte?
The zygote is retained within the female (archegonium) sex organ for some time. After a resting period the zygote changes into embryo. The embryo ultimately develops into a sporophyte.
26. What are characteristics of sporophyte of bryophyte?
The sporophyte is a less conspicuous generation, partially or totally dependent upon the gametophyte for its nutrition. The sporophyte generally consists of foot, seta and capsule. The sporophyte is (diploid (2n) which produces in sporangia one kind of haploid spores (Homosporous) by meiosis.
27. What is the importance (significance) of alternation of generation?
It is very important phenomenon, which provides continuous genetic variability and selection for the best genetic make up for survival and adaptation in the changing environments.
28. Give some characters for adaptation to land or terrestrial environment?(
1. A compact multicellular plant body was formed which helped in the conservation of water by reducing cell surface area exposed to survival and adaptation in the changing environment.
2.Special structures like rhizoids were developed  for absorption of  water and anchorage.
3.Heterogamy was evolved  forming non-motile egg  containing stored food and motile sperms.
4.Multicellular embroyo was formed which was retained inside the female reproductive body during its development.
29. What are liverworts? Give some examples?
Bryophytes belonging to class hepaticopsida are called Liverworts. They are simplest of all Bryophytes. They are usually found on moist rocks and on wet soil. Water, Minerals, food and other substance are transported by diffusion. Gametophyte and sporophyte alternate with each other.
30. What is the habitat of mosses or Bryopsida?
Most mosses inhabit damp places. In contrast to other Bryophytes they grow equally well in fairly dry places. However, water is essential in the reproduction of mosses. Thus they usually grow to form cushions or mats.
31.How fertilization and zygote formation occurs in Hepaticopsida?
The antherozoids swim through the film of water and reach the archegonium. They are attracted by source secreted by the neck of the archegonium. Zygote (Oospore) is produced after fertilization. The diploid oospore divides mitotically and forms the multicellular embryo which develops to form the sporophyte.
32. Give examples of mosses?
Examples of mosses are Funaria and Polytrichum.
33. Differentiate between antheridiophores and archegoniophores?
In marchantia, antheridia bearing branches of gametophyte are called antheridiophores while those bearing archegonia are called archegonphores.
34. What are paraphyses ?
These are sterile hairs present in mosses. They are mixed with antheridia and archegonia on the tip of gametophyte and protect then.
35. What is protonema ?
The spore of a moss develops into an alga like structure called the protonema. Haploid moss plants (gametophyte) develop from buds on the protonema.
36. How sporophyte of Anthoceropsida (hornworts) differ from those of Hepaticopsida (liverworts) and Bryosida (mosses)?
Expect for a little early stage of development the sporophyte is not dependent upon gametophyte for nourishment and protection. It has stomat and chloroplasts to carry on photosynthesis. It has waxy cuticle for protection from desiccation. It also shows indeterminate cuticle. So it survives even after the death of gametophyte.
37. What is Anthoceros?
One good example of Anthoceropsida is Anthoceros which is also found in the hilly areas of Pakistan.
38. Why tracheophytes are called vascular plants?
Tracheophytes are called vascular plants because of the presence of vascular tissues i.e., xylem and phloem.
39. What are vascular tissues?
Xylem and phloem are the vascular tissues which are arranged in bundles known as vascular bundles. The xylem conducts water and dissolved mineral salts from the root to all parts of the plant. The food synthysized in the leaves, is transported through phloem to the growing tip and into the storage regions of the plant.
40. Differentiate between homospory and heterospory?
The condition in which plant e.g., primitive vascular land plants, produce all morphologically and structurally alike spores, is called homospory. On the other hand the condition in which plant produce morphologically, structurally and functionally two different types of spores, the smaller ones called microspores and the larger ones known as megaspores, is called heterospory.
41. Differentiate between microphycells and megaphylls?
A leaf having a single undivided vein (vascular supply) is called microphyll e.g., Lycopodium. On the other hand, large leaves having dichotomously divided veins and and veinlets with an expanded leaf blade or lamina are as known as megaphylells. Megaphylls are characteristic for ferns and seed plants.
42. What is overtopping?
The dichotomously branched aerial portion of the stem showed unequal branching branch. Some branches remain short other grew in different planes. Such an unequal development of various branches is called overtopping.
43. What is planation?
During evolution of leaf when unequal dichotomies (branches) become arranged in one plane the process was termed as planation.
44. What is reticulate or net venation?
When a leaf has more than one veins which are forming a network in the blade or lamina, this arrangement of veins is called reticulate venation.
45. What is webbing?
During evolution of megaphyll, the space between the overtopped dichotomous branches was occupied by a sheet of parenchyma cells which connected these branches forming a flat lamina or leaf blade type of structure. This process is called webbing.
46. What type of leaves are present in Lycopsids?
The leaves are small and single-microphylls. The arrangement of leaves is spiral or opposite.
47. What type of gametophyte is present in Psiloposida?
The gametophyte is thalloid (no differentiation of root, stem and leave). It is colourless and underground. Its cells contain a found which provides food to the gametophyte and in return gets protection from it. Such beneficial relationship among the two members is said to be sysmbosis; or mycorrhizal association. E.g., Psilotum, and Tmesaipeteris.
48. How many types of sporangia are found in Lycopsids?
The sporangia develop singly on the upper side of the sporophylls, which may or may not be be arranged to from strobilus (cone). The sporophyte may have sporangia of one kind as an Lycopodium or of two kinds i.e., microsporangia and megasporangia as in Selaginella.
49. Why lycopsids are called club mosses/ spike mosses?
Lycopsids are not mosses but are called club mosses/spake mosses because of their club/ spike- shaped strobili and small leaves resembling mosses.
50. Why sphenopsids are called arthrophytes?
Sphenopsids are called Arthrophytes because the whole plant body is composed of number of joints e.g., Equisetum.
What is Oospore?

A thick walled zygote that is formed after the fertilization of an Oospore.

Define a spike?

A racemose inflorescence is which the flowers are sessile and borne on an elongated axis as in wheat.

Are all the seed plants also known as the flowering plants?

No, only the angiosperms are also called flowering plants but not the gymnosperms.

Which are the probable ancestors of bryophytes?

These are the green algae.


Name a heaterosporus lycopsid?

It is the Selaginella.

What is a sours in ferns?

A group of sporangia is known as a sorus in Adiantum.

What is prothallus?

The gametophyte of fern is also called as the prothallus. It has leaf like shape.

What are the seed producing plants normally called?

The seed producing plants are normally called spermatophytes.

What is compound leaf?

A leaf, the blade of which is divided into several pieces or leaflets is called a compound leaf.

Where do the ferns grow?

The ferns grow in moist and shady places on the hills and in the plants.

How are ferns better adapted to life on land than liverworts and mosses?


  • Reproduction is not dependent on water.
  • Sporophyte and gametophyte are independent generations.
Which of the following are nutritionally self-supporting?

  • Mature liverwort and moss gametophyte.
  • Mature liverwort and moss sporophyte.

Mature liverwort and moss gametophyte.

The chance of survival and development of windblown pollen grains are much less than those of spores of Adiantum. Comment on this statement?

Although spores of Adiantum are also dispersed by wind, however when a spore falls on a moist soil, it germinates at suitable temperature and produces a haploid gametophyte or prothallus. But is case of wind-blown pollen grains, if they fall on soil, they are wasted, for their survival and development it is must for then to fall on the stigma f flower.

Account for the fact that megaspores are large and microspores are small?

Megaspores are large since they have to store food for the growth of embryo.

What important advances have anglosperms made towards the seed plant life?

One of the most significant events in the history of land plants was the development of seed habit. It was and important change in the reproductive system of the vascular plants. Technically as seed may be defined as a fertilized ovule. An ovule is an integument indehiscent mega sporangium, integuments are specialized protective coverings around mega sporangium which very in number. Mega sporangium is also called Nucleus. All seed producing plants are called spermatophytes.

Major steps in Evolution of seed:

The major steps associated with the evolution of seed habit are as follows:

  • The evolution of heterospory
  • Retention and germination of megaspore within the mega sporangium
  • Development of protective layers around mega sporangium.
  • Reduction to a single functional megaspore per sporangium.
  • Development of an embryo sac within the sporangium.
  • Modification of distal end of mega sporangium for pollen capture.
Define didynamous condition?

Having two long stamens and two short stamens in single whirl.

What is perianth?

The structure that protects the developing reproductive parts of the flower.

What is a thallus i.e., thalloid plant body?

The body of plant which is not differentiated into root, stem and leaves is called a thallus or thalloid plant body.

Write down the names of the parts of typical carpel?

The parts of a typical carpel of flower are the ovary, style and stigma.

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