11th Class Biology Chapter 7 The Kingdom Protista Short Question Answers

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11th Class Biology Chapter 7 The Kingdom Protista Short Question Answers Below

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1. Give two characteristics or important features of protists ?
i) The protists are unicellular, colonial or simple multi-cullular organisms that process a eukaryotic cell organization. ii) Unlike plants and animals, however, protists do not develop from a blastula or an embryo.
2. Why kingdom protista is regarded as a polyphyletic group of organisms?
Based on the diversity most biologists regard the protists kingdom as a polyphyletic group of organisms, that is the protists probably do not share a single common ancestor. Margulis and Schwartz have listed 27 phyla to accommodate this diverse assemblage of orgmasim.
3 Name of major groups of protozoa. Also give examples?
They are divided into following major groups. i. Zooflagellates e.g Euglena Trypanosoma, Opalina Choanoflagillida , Codosiga ii. Amoebas, e.g. Amoeba, Entamoeba. iii.Actinopods e.g , Radiolarians iv. Foraminifera e.g , Forams v. Apicomplexans e.g., Plasmodium vi. Cilites e.g ., Paramecium, Vorticella, Stentor.
4. Name different phla of algae?
1. Phylum Euglenophyta (euglenoids) 2. Phylum Rhodophyta (red alglae) 3.Phylum Chrysophyta (diatoms) 4. Phylum Phyrropphyta (Dinoflagelates & Crytomonads) 5. Phylum Phaeophyta (brown angle) 6. Phylum Chlorophyta (green aglae)
5. What is the habitat of zooflagellates?
They may be free-living, symbionts or parasites.
6. What is the importance of Trichonymhas?
Trichonymphas are complex, specialized flagellates with many flagella which live as symbionts in the guts of termites and help in the digestion of dry wood.
7. How does the ciliates differ from other protozoans as for as nucless is concerned?
Cilliates differ from other protozoans in having two kinds of nuclei. One or more small diploid micronuclei that function in sexual process, and a large, polyploid macronucleus that controls cell metabolism and growth.
8. What is the difference in tests of foraminifera and actinopods?
Tests of foraminifera are made of calcium where as those of actinopods are made of silica.
9. How plasmodium enters the human blood?
Plasmodium and malaria Plasmodium enters human blood through the bite of an infected female Anopheles mosquito.
10. What do you know about giant amoeba?
The giant amoeba The giant amoeba pelomyxa palustris mey be the most primitive of all eukaryote like forms. This species has multiple membrane-bound nuclei but none of the other organelles found in all other eukaryotes. The giant amoebas obtain energy from methanogenic bacteria, which reside inside them. Giant amoebas inhabit mud at the bottom of freshwater ponds, where they contribute to the degradation of organic mokecules.
11. How algae differ from plants?
Algae differ from the plants in that the sex organs in algae are unicellular and the zygote is not protected by the parent body. A plant zygote, on the other hand, grows into a multicellular embryo that is protected by parental tissue.
12. What are coenocytes?
Coenocytes are multinucleate structures or filaments or hyphae that lack cross-walls.
13. Define Thallus?
A body which is nit differentiated into true roots, stems and leaves and lacks xylem & phloem is called a thallus.
14. How euglenoids are plant-like as well as animal like?
They are plant in that their pigments are the Same as in plants and green algae. However, some photosysthetic euglenoids lose their chlorophyll when grown in dark and obtain their nutrients heterotrophically by ingesting organic matter. They also lack cell wall which shows that they are animal like.
15. What are the red tides?
Dinoflagellates are known to have occasional population explosions or blooms. These blooms frequency colour the water orange, red, or brown and are known as red tides.
16. What is chlorella?
Chlorella is a unicellular non- motile green alga. Its habitat is fresh water ponds and ditches. It is easily cultured and has been used as an experimental organism in research on photosynthesis as well as being investigated as an alternative source of food.
17. What is importance of algae?
i. Some algae such as kelps are edible and may be used to overcome shortage of food in the world. ii. Marine algae are also source of many useful substance like again, agar , carrageenan , and antiseptics. iii. Algae are major producers of the aquatic ecosystem, thus they play a basic role in food chains, providing food and oxygen to other organisms.
18. How fungus- like protists and fungi resemble each other ?
Some protists superficially resemble fungi in the: i) they are not photosynthetic. ii) some have bodies formed of threadlike structures called hyphae.
19. What are differences between fungus- like protists and fungi?
The fungus-like protists are not fungi for several reasons. i) Many of protists have contrioles which is not fount in fungi. ii)They produce cellulose as a major component of their cell walls, whereas fungi have cell walls of chitin.
20. Name the major groups of fungus-like protists?
Two major groups of fungus-like protists are . i) Slime molds ii) Water molds(oomycotes)
21. Why the protists so difficult to classify?
The kingdom protists consists of a large number of primarily aquatic eukaryotic organisms whose diverse body forms, type of reproduction, modes of nutrition and lifestyles make them difficult to characterize and classify.
22. Why protists are placed in separate kingdom?
Basically this kingdom is defined bt exclusion i.e. all members have characteristics that exclude them from the other four kingdoms. Another reason for creating a separate kingdom arises from the difficulty in placing certain eukaryotic organisms in the appropriate kingdom. This difficulty is a consequence of the fact that the other eukaryotic kingdoms have their evolutionary origin in kingdom protista.
23. From which the protist are evolved ?
The kingdom protista contains four major groups of eukaryotic organisms ; single called protozoans, unicellular algae, multicullar algae, slime molds and oomycotes (oomycetes).
24. Name major groups of eukaryotic organism of kingdom protists?
The kingdom protista contains four major groups of eukaryotic organisms ; single called protozoans, unicellular algae, multicullar algae, slime molds and oomycotes (oomycetes).
25. When and who proposed the kingdom protista for microscope organisms?
John Hogg, in 1861 proposed the kingdom protoctista for microscopic organisms.
26. What was suggestion of Ernst Haeckle in creating a kingdom protista?
He suggested creating the kingdom protista to include bacteria and other microorganisms (such as Euglena) that did not fit into plant or animal kingdom. He, however, separated blue green algae and bacteria (prokaryotes) from nucleated protists and placed them in a separate group he called Monera, within the kingdom protista.
27. When and who elevated the prokaryotes to kingdom status?
Herbert Copeland, 1938, elvated the prokaryotes to kingdom status, thus separating them from protista.
28. Compare the kingdom protista as described by Robert Whittaker and Margulis and Schwartz?
Robert whittaker , 1969, in five kingdom system of Robert whittaker only unicellular Eukaryotes were placed in kingdom protista . Margulis and Shwartz, 1982, modified the five kingdoms and includes protozoa, algae and slime and water molds.
29. In what characters protista had evolved diversty?
During the course of evolutionary history, organisms in the kingdom protista have evolved diversity in their (a) size and structure.(b) means of iocomotion. (c) ways of obtaining nutrients, (d) interactions with other organisms. (e) habitat and (f) modes of reproduction.
30. What are the locomotory organs of the following: Amoebas, Zooflagellates, Actionopods, Foraminifera and Cilliates?
The locomotory organs of amoebas are pseudopodia, zooflagellates- flagella, actionopods- pseudopodia; foraminirera- pseudopodia, and ciliates- cilia.
31. Give two characters of amoebas?
This group includes all free living freshwater, marine and soil amoebas, as well as those that are parasites of animals. Amoebas move by forming specialized cytoplasmic projections called pseudopodia.
32. Name the amoeba and disease caused by it in humans?
The intestinal parasite, Entamoeba histolytica, cause amoebic dysentery.
33. What do you know about the locomotion of zooflagellates?
They possess from one to many long, whip-like flagella that enable them to move. Flagellates move rapidly, pulling themselves forward by lashing flexible flagella, that are usually located at the anterior end.
34. How flagellates obtain their food?
Flagellates obtain their food either by ingesting living or dead organisms or by absorbing nutrients from dead or decomposing organic matter.
35. Name the parasitic flagellates and the disease caused by it. And how it transmitted?
Trypanosoma is a human parasite causing African sleeping sickness, It is transmitted tsetse fly.
36. Write a short note on Choanoflagellates?
Choanoflagellates are sessile marine or freshwater flagellates which are attached by a stalk and their single flagellum is surrounded by a delicate collar. They are of special interest because of their striking resemblance to collar cells in sponges.
37. What is pellicle?
Ciliates are unicellular organisms with a fixable outer covering called a pellicle that gives them a definite but changeable shape.
38. How water regulation occur in ciliates?
Water regulation in fresh water ciliates is controlled by special organelles called contractile vacuoles.
39. How does conjugation occur in ciliaters?
During conjugation two individuals come together and exchange genetic material. Most ciliates are capable of conjugation.
40. What are cilia and what is their function? Or How does movement occur in ciliates?
In Paramecium, the surface of the cell is covered with several thousand fine, short, hair like structure called cilia. The cilia beat in such a precisely coordinated fashion that the organism cannot only go forward but can also back up and turn around.
41. What is the food of ciliates?
Their cilia set of water currents that draw food towards them. Most ciliates ingest bacteria or their tiny protists.
42. List the similarities between the foraminifera and actionpods?
Both are marine protozoans, produce shells. Both have pseudopodia for locomotion.
43. What is chalk?
Dead foraminiferans sink to the bottom of the ocean where their shell from a grey mud that is gradually transformed into chalk.
44. What are apicomplexans?
Apocomplexans are a large group of parasitic protozoa, some of which cause serious disease such as malaria in humans. They move by flexing . At some stage in their lives, they develop a spore, a small infective agent transmitted to the next host. Many Apicomplexans spend part of their life in one host and part in a different host species.
45. Why algae are known as plant like protists?
Algae are photosynthetic protists. Carrying out probably 50 to 60 percent of all the photocysthesis on earth. They store starch as reserve food. So they aresaid to be plant –like protists.
46. How algae exhibit a remarkable rang of growth forms?
Algae exhibit a remarkable rang of growth forms. Some are unicellular; other are filamentous. Filaments are composed either of distinct cell or coenocytes (multinucleate structure that lack cross-walls), still others (e.g., seaweeds) are multicellular and intricately (highly) branched or arranged in leaf- like extensions.
47. What type of photosynthetic and pigments are present in algae?
In addition to green chlorophyll a and yellow and orange carotenoids; which are photosynthetic pigments found in all algae, different algae phyla possess a variety of other pigments(such as xanthophyesis and  phycoerythrin) that are also important in  photosynthesis.
48.What is the habitat algae?
Almost all algae are aquatic. When activity growing, along are restricted to damp or wet environments, such as the ocean; freshwater ponds, lakes, and stream; hot spring ; polar ice; moist soil, trees, and rocks.
49. Write the common names of the following phyla: Euglenophyta, phyrrophyta, Chrysophyta, Phaeophyta, Rghodopphyta, Chlorophyta?
Euglenophyta – Euglenoids, Phyrrophyta – Dinoflagellates, Chrysophyta – Diatoms, Phaeophyta – Brown algae , Rhodophyta – Red algae, Chlorophyta – Green algae.
50. What is the ecological importance of dinoflagellates?
Ecologically, dinoflagellates are one of the most importance groups of producers (second only to diatoms) in marine ecosystem.
Write characteristics of protists?

The protists are unicellular, colonial or simple multicellular organisms that possess a eukaryotic cell organization. e.g., Algae, Protozoa.

What are the major groups of eukaryotic organisms of kingdom Protista?

The kingdom Protista contain four major groups i.e.

  1. Single cell protozoans.
  2. Unicellular algae.
  3. Multicellular algae.
  4. Slime molds and Oomycotes.
Who proposed kingdom Protista?

John Hogg proposed kingdom Protista for microscopic organisms.

In which respects during course of evolutionary history, organisms in Kingdom Protists have evolved diversity?


  1. Size and structure.
  2. Means of locomotion.
  3. Ways of obtaining nutrients.
  4. Interactions with other organisms.
  5. Modes of reproduction.
Write two characteristics of protozoans?

Characteristics of Protozo

  1. All Protozoans are unicellular.
  2. Most ingest their food by endocytosis.
How zoo-flagellates obtain their food?

They obtain food either by ingesting living or dead organisms e.g., Euglena, Amoeba or by decomposing organic matter. e.g., Slime Algae.

What is the habitat of zoo-flagellates?

Zoo flagellates are free living, parasite, or symbionts.

What is trypanosome?

Trypanosome is a human parasite causing African sleeping sickness. It is transmitted by the bite of infected tsetse fly.

What is the habitat of choanoflagellates?

choanoflagellates are sessile marine or freshwater flagellates which are attached by a stalk.

Define pellicle?

Pellicle is a flexible outer covering of ciliates that gives them definite but changeable shape.

In which way ciliates differ from other protozoans?

Ciliates differ from other protozoans in having two kinds of nuclei large is mega nucleus and small is micronucleus.

From what tests of foraminifera and of actinopods are made of?

Tests of foraminifera all made of calcium where as those of actinopode are made of silica.

Write two characteristics of Apicomplexans?

Characteristics of Apicomplex

  1. Apicomplexans are unicellular.
  2. They are non-motile.
Write the name of apicomplexans that cause malaria?

Plasmodium, the apicomplexans that cause malaria enters human body by the bite of infected female anopheles mosquito.

What kind of body algae possessed?

The plant body of algae is thallus i.e., not differentiated into true roots, stems and leave and lack vascular bundles.

Write two characteristics of dinoflagellates?

Characteristics of dinoflagellates:

  1. Most dinoflagellates are unicellular.
  2. Their cells are often covered with shells of interlocking cellulose plates impregnated with silicates.
What stage is called plasmodium in slime molds?

The feeding stage of a slime mold is a multinucleate mass of cytoplasm that can grow to 30cm (1 foot) in diameter. This stage is called plasmodium.

What are the similarities between fungus like protists and fungi?

Some protists resemble fungi in that they are not photosynthetic and some have bodies formed of thread like structure called hyphae. 

What causes late blight of potatoes?

Late blight of potatoes is caused by a water mold called phytopthorainfestans.

Why Euglena is placed in kingdom protists?

They are placed in kingdom Protista because they have chlorophyll and are photosynthetic but at the same time it had cell wall and is motile.

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