11th Class Biology Chapter 6 Kingdom Prokaryotae Monera Short Question Answers
11th Class Biology Chapter 6 Kingdom Prokaryotae Monera Short Question Answers Below
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Eubacteria: Eubacteria (Greek of “True bacteria”) and a much smaller division. Cell well is of peptidoglycan or murein. For e.gE.Coli.
Archacobacteria:The archacobacteria (Greek for “ancient bacteria”). Cell wall is of protein, Glycoprotein, polysaccharide, for e.g Methanogen bacteria.
A Dutch scientist “Antone Van Leeuwenhoek” (1673) was the first to report the microbes such as bacteria and protozoa.
He firstly observed small creatures in rainwater, then confirmed these in saliva, vinegar, infusions and other substances.
Robert Koch formulated the “Germ theory of disease”.
The postulates of germ theory of disease are:
- A specific organism can always be found in association with a given disease.
- The organism can be isolated and grown in pure culture in laboratory.
- The pure culture will produce the disease when inoculated into susceptible animal.
- It is possible to recover the organism in pure culture from experimentally infected animals.
Flagella: These are extremely thin, hair like appendages. They come out through cell wall and originate from basal body, structure just beneath the cell membrane in the cytoplasm. They are made up of protein Flagellin.
Functions: Primary function of flagella is to help in motility. With the help of flagella, flagellate bacteria can also detect and move in response to chemical signals which is a type of behavior called as chemo taxis.
On basis of presence of flagella, pattern of attachment of flagella and the number of flagella present bacteria are classified into different taxonomic groups:
Atrichous:Atrichous means bacteria are without any flagella.
Monotrichous:When single polar flagellum is present then condition is known as monotrichous.
Lophotrichous:If tuft of flagella is present only at one pole of bacteria then these are lophotrichous flagella.
Amphitrichous: Amphitrichous is a condition when tuft of flagella at each of two poles is present.
Peritrichous: In peritrichous form, flagella surround the whole cell.
Pilli: These are hollow, non-helical, filamentous appendages. Pilli are smaller than flagella and are not involved in motility. True Pilli are only present in gram-negative bacteria. They are made up of special protein called pilin.
- They are primarily involved in a mating process between cells called conjugation process.
- Some pili function as a means of attachment of bacteria to various surfaces.
Christian Gram developed the technique of gram stain.
Collectively complexes of layer external to the cell protoplasm are called a cell envelope.
Capsule: Bacteria produce capsule, which is made up of repeating polysaccharides units, and of protein, or both, capsule is tightly bound to the cell. It has a thicker, gummy nature that gives sticky characters to colonies of encapsulated bacteria.
Slime: Some bacteria are covered with loose, soluble shield of macromolecules which is called as slime capsule and slime provides greater pathogenicity to bacteria and protects them against phagocytosis.
It is a rigid structure. It determines the shape of bacterium. Cell wall also protects the cells from osmotic lysis.
The plasma membrane and everything present within it is known as protoplast.
The functions performed by cell membrane in bacteria are:
- Cell membrane performed regulates the transport of proteins, nutrients, sugar and electrons or other metabolites.
- The plasma membranes of bacteria also contain enzymes for respiratory metabolism.
Mesosomes: The cell membrane, invaginates into the cytoplasm forming structure called as mesosomes. Mesosomes are in the form of vesicles, tubules or lamellae.
Functions:Mesosomes are involved in DNA replication and cell division where as some mesosomes are also involved in export of exocellular enzyme. Respiratory enzyme are also present on the mesosomes.
Cell wall is only absent in mycoplasma.
Ribosomes are composed of RNA and proteins. Some may also be loosely attached to plasma membranes. They are protein factories. There are thousands of ribosomes in each healthy growing cell. They are smaller then eukaryotic ribosomes. They are 70S, small unit of 30S and large of 50S.
Many bacteria contains plasmid in addition to chromosomes. These are the circular, double stranded DNA molecules. They are self-replicating and are not essential for bacterial growth and metabolism. They often contain drug resistant, heavy metals, disease and insect resistant genes on them, Plasmids are important vectors, in modern engineering techniques.
Bacteria store glycogen, sulphurm fat and phosphate.
Common waste materials are alcohol lactic acid and acetic acid.
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