11th Class Biology Chapter 5 Variety of Life Short Questions Answer

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11th Class Biology Chapter 5 Variety of Life Short Questions Answer

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1.How many species of animals and plants are known?
Over one and a half million species of animals and over a half million species of plants are known.
2.Define species?
A species is a group of natural population which can interbreed freely among themselves and produce fertile offsprings but are reproductively isolated from all other such groups in nature.
3.Who and when system for naming and classifying devised?
During the 18th century Carlous Linnaeus (1707-1778),a swedish botanist devised a system for naming and classifying all the organisms known to him.
4.What is Binomial nomenclature?
Linnaeus’s system of giving each species a scientific name comprising two words is known as binomial nomenclature.
5.Give any two rules of binomial nomenclature?
• The names of species are derived fron latin or latinized greek words. • The generic name always begins with a capital letter.
6.What are the basis of five kingdom system proposed by robert whittaker?
Five kingdom system of classification proposed by robert whittaker is based on three different levels of cellular organization associated with three principal modes of nutrition-photosynthesis,absorption and ingestion.
7.Name the five kingdoms proposed by robert whittaker?
The five kingdoms proposed by whittaker are: • Kingdom Monera • Kingdom Protista • Kingdom plantae • Kingdom Fungi • Kingdom Animalia
8.What is the difference between kingdoms Monera and Protista?
Kingdoms Monera:These are prokaryotic unicerllular organisms such as bacteria. Kingdom Protists:These are eukaryotic predominantly unicellular organisms such as Euglena and Amoeba.
9.Define virus?
It can be defined as non-cellular infectious entity which coctain either RNA or DNA normally encased in proteinaceous coat and reproduce only in living cells.
10.Why viruses can pass through the pores of filter while bacteria cannot?
They are 10 to 1000 times smaller than most bacteria so they can pass through the pores of filter from which bacteria cannot pass.
11.What do you mean by obligate intracellular parasites?
The organisms which can only reproduce or survive in living organisms or cells e,g.Viruses are known as obligate intracellular parasites.
12.What are the prions?
The most recently discovered 1983 and least understood micro organisms are the prions which may be infectious proteins.There nature is very controversial.Prions are responsible for mad cow infection and mysterious brain infection in man.
13.What is the difference between cubical and helical phages?
In general appearance cubical phages are regular solid or icosahedral and helical phages are rod shaped.
14.What are different shapes of viruses?
On the basis of morphology viruses are classified into rod shaped (T.M.V)spherical and tadpole like bacteriop viruses etc.
15.Name some viral diseases which are common in pakistan?
• Small pox • Herpes simplex • Mumps • Poliomyelitis • Measles
16.On what basis do you sy that HIV is host specific?
Recent studies on HIV reveals that the virus infects and multiplies in monkey but does not cause disease in them which means that HIV is host specific.
17.What is the mode of transmission of HIV?
The HIV is transmitted by intimate sexual contact with blood and breast feeding.Healthcare workers can also acquire HIV during professional activities.
18.How can we prevent AIDS?
Avoiding tr direct contact with HIV is important measure for preventing the disease.Prevention of intravenous drugs with common syringe and use of sterile needles and utensils is important.
19.What is Hepatitis?How it is caused?
Hepatitis is an inflammation of the liver.It is usuallycaused by viral infection toxic agents or drugs.
20.What are the symptoms of Hepatitis?
It is characterized by jaundice abdominal pain liver enlargement fatigue and some times fever.It may be mild or can be acute and can lead to liver cancer.People with chronic hepatitis infection are at the risk of liver damage.
21.What is the composotion of virion?
The virions are composed of a central core of nucleic acid either DNA or RNA which is also known as the genome and is surrounded by a protein coat the capsid.
22.What is the lowest and highest group in classification?
Species is the smallest group while kingdom is the highest group in classification.
23.At the time of Louis Pasteur and robert koch the word virus was referred for what purpose?
At the time of Louis Pasteur and Robert Koch the word virus was generally referred to as a poison associated with disease and death.
24.Where word virus is derived from?
The word virus is derived from Latin word venome meaning poisonous fluid.
25.Why the term vaccination was used by Louis Pasteur?
The term vaccination was used by Llouis Pasteur for inoculation against disease.
26.What was the work of Ivanowsky?
In 1982 ivanowsky discovered that the agent which available antibiotics such as penicillin streptomycin and others.
27.Are viruses resistant to antibiotics?
All viruses are generally resistant to broad range of available antibiotics such as penicillin streptomycin and others.
28.What is the capsid made up of?
Capsid made up of protein subunits known as capsomeres.
29.Into how many structural forms bacteriophages occur?
Bacteriophages occur in two structural forms having cubical or helical symmetry.
30.What does the viral nucleic acid do immediately afrer entering the host cell?
Immediately after entering the host cell the viral nucleic acid takes the control of the host’s bopsumthetic machinery.
31.What is temperate or avirulent phage?
The phage which causes lysogeny is called temperate or avirulent phage.
32.What is Influenza?
Influenza viruses are enveloped RNA,viruses.Influenza is wide spread disease in man and occurs in epidemic from.
33.What is Mumps?
Mumps is highly contagious wide spread but seldom fatal.About 60% of adults are immune to it.It is caused by RNA enveloped viris that belong group paramyxoviruses.
34.What is Measles?
Measles is one of the commonest diseases of the childhood and human population is equally susceptible throughout the world.This disease develops immunity in its victim.It is caused by RNA enveloped virus that belong group paramyxoviruses.
35.What are pocks?
In small pox raised fluid filled vesicles are formed on the body which become pustule later on and form pitted scars the pocks.
36.How hepatitis A is transmitted?
Hepatities A is transmitted by contact with faeces from infected individuals.
37.What is virology?
The branch which deals with the study of virus is known as virology.
38.What did Chamberland find?
In 1884 Charles Chamberland found that bacteria cannot pass through porcelain filters.
39.What are naked virions?
Non enveloped viruses are known as naked virions.
40.With which material jenner vaccinated 8 years old boy?
In 1796 Edward jenner first vaccinated an 8 year old boy with material removed from cowpox lesion on the hand of milkmaid.
41.When filterable agents were first purified?
The filterable agents were first purified in 1935 when stanley was successful in crystallizing the tobacco mosic virus.
42.What is the size of viruses?
Viruses range in size from 250 nanometer of poxviruses to the 20 nm of parvovirus.
43.What is lysozyme?
The tail of bacteriophage releases the enzyme lysozyme to dissolve a portion of the bacterial cell wall.
44.What is lytic or virulent phage?
The phage which causes lysis of the host cell is known as lytic or virulent phage.
45.What is the scientific name for onion amaltas and man?
Scientific name for onion is Allium cepa for amaltas cassia fistula and for man Homo sapiens.
46.What is the botanical name for potato and brinjal?
Botanical name for potato is Solanum tuberosum and for brinjal solanum melangena.
47.How many times viruses are smaller than bacteria?
Viruses are 10 to 1000 times smaller than most bacteria.
48.Differentiate between capsid and capsomeres?
The viral genome is surrounded by a protein coat the capsid whereas capsid is made up if protein subunits called capsomeres.
49.What is nucleocapsid?
The nucleic acid and capsid is collectively called nucleocapsid.
50.What is the meaning of Pyramidal?
Pyramidal means having two triangular structures with common base.
What is vaccine?

A harmless variant or derivative of a pathogen that stimulates host’s immune system to mount defenses against the pathogen.

Which are the kinds of the hepatitis caused by virus yet unidentified?

There are hepatitis F and hepatitis G.

What is virology?

The study if viruses is known as virology.

What is the origin of the word virus?

The word virus is derived from a Latin word venome which means poisonous fluid.

Define the term species?

Species is a group of individual which resemble with one another and can freely breed among themselves in nature to produce fertile offspring.

Who isolated the virus from the host tobacco cells in and when?

Stanley isolated viruses from the host tobacco cells in 1935.

When did small pox occur as epidemic in China?

In 12th Century B: C.

Name the organism which shares the characters of both the plants as well as animals?

The organism is Euglena

How do antibodies like penicillin and streptomycin etc. Affect the pathogenic viruses?

The viruses are generally resistant to antibodies.

What is the nature of nucleic acid in phages?

The nucleic acid in phages is the DNA

What is autotrophy?

An organism which can prepare its own food from simple inorganic material is called an autotrophic and this phenomenon is called autotrophy.

What us HAV abbreviation for?

HAV is abbreviation for Hepatitis A virus.

How is HIV transmitted?

It is transmitted by intimate sexual contact, use of common syringes, contact with blood and breast feeding ect.

What does bacteriophage mean?

Bacteriophage means “bacteria eater”.

List the divisions of the biological classification system of animals?

These are the phylum, class, order, family, genus and species.

What is the role of capsid?

Capsid is a protein shell that encloses the virol genome. It gives definite shape to virion.

What is the Swedish botanist, Carolus Linnaeus famous for?

Carolus Linnaeus devised a system for giving scientific names to plants and animals in 1753.

Write down the phylum and class of zea mays.

These are entophyte (Tracheophyta) and Monocodyledonae respectively.

Write down the cause and symptoms of hepatitis B.

Hepatitis B is caused by hepatitis virus HGV. Its symptoms are fatigue, loss of appetite and Jaundice.

What is an obligate parasite?

An organisms which can live only as parasite in the body of the host is called as obligate parasite.

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