11th Class Biology Chapter 4 The Cell Short Questions Answer

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11th Class Biology Chapter 4 The Cell Short Questions Answer

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1.Who said omnis cellula-e-cellula?
Rudolph Virchoow.
2.What is the work of Lorenz Oken?
Lorenz oken (1805) belived that alll living being originate from or consist of vesicles or cells.
3.Define cell theory?
The cell theory states that all living being animals and plants are composed of cells and cell products.
4.Who finally formulated cell theory?
The cell theory was finally formulated by a botanist named schleiden (1838) and a zoologist named schwann(1839).
5.What is the composition of cell or plasma membrane?
Cell membrane is chemically composed of lipids and proteins 60-80% are proteins while 20-40 are lipids.
6.How much water is present in cytoplasm?
Chemically cytoplasm is about 90% water.
7.What is the most important function of the cytoplasm?
The most important function of the cytoplasm is to act as a store house of vital chemicals.
8.How many morphologic forms of endoplasmic reticulum are present? What are these?
There are two morphologic forms of endoplasmic reticulum a rough form with attached ribosomes and a smooth form without ribosomes
9.What is polysome?
When many ribosomes get attached to the same of mRNA they form a structure called Polysome.
10.What is primary lysosome?
The processed enzymes are budded off as Golgi vesicles and are called as primary lysosomes.
11.What are plastide?
Membrane bounded pigment containing bodies present in the cells are called plastids.
12.Name different types of RNAs?
There are three kinds of RNAs,messenger RNA (mRNA) transfer RNA(tRNA)and ribosomal RNA (rRNA).
13.What is scculus?
The entire cell wall of prokaryotes is often regarded as a single huge molecule or molecular complex called sacculus.
14.What is the diameter of peroxisomes?
Peroxisomes are about 0.5 um in diameter.
15.Where glyoxisomes are most abundantly found?
Glyoxisomes are most abundant in plant seedlings.
16.What is the role of intermediate filaments?
Intermediate filaments play role in maintenance of cell shape.
17.What are F1 particles?
The inner surface of cristae in the mitochondrial matix has small knob like structures know as F1 particles.
18.What is granum?
A granum appears to be a pile of thylakoid stacked on each other like conis.
19.How many thylakoids are present in a granum?
On an average there are 50 or more thylakoids piled to from one granum.
20.Why name peroxisome was applied?
The name peroxisome was applied because this organelle is specifically involed in the formation and decomposition of gydrogen peroxide in the cell.
21.What was generally believed about the comosition of plasma or cell membrane?
Generally it was believed that plasma membrane is composed of lipid bilayer sandwitched between two protein layers.
22.Define active transport?
Movement of materials against concentration gradient is termed as active transport.
23.Differentiate between phagocytosis and pinocytosis?
Endocytosis which involves ingestion of soild material is called phagocytosis while endocytosis which involves ingestion of liquid material is called pinocytosis.
24.State various structural modifications in a cell involed in secretions?
Secretions are the products produced within the cell on ribosomes and then passed to the outside through endoplasmic reticulum and Golgi apparatus.
25.List the processes blocked b mitochondrialfailure in a cell?
a)Krebs cycle,(b) Electron transport chain,(c) Fatty acid metabolism.
26.What will happen if a chromosome loses its centromere?
The chromosome will abort and degenerate
How does autophagy help in converting a tadpole larva into an adult amphibian?
Autophagy is involed in breakdown of cell organelles of tail of tadpole larva.Autophagy is followed by autolysis by which cell is destroyed.In this way tail would disappear.
28.Is there any similarity between bacterial and plant cell wall?
Both peptidoglycan found in bacterial cell wall and cellulose found in plant cell wall are carbohydrates.
29.What does lie inner to cell membrane?
Inner to the dell membrane lies cytoplasm which contains cell organelles
30.What is cytosol?
The soluble part of the cytoplams is called cytosol.
31.What is endoplasmic reticulum?
Endoplasmic reticulum is visible under electron microscope as a network of channels extending throughout the cytoplasm.
32.Why eukaryotic ribosomes are said to ribonucleoprotein particels?
Eukaryotic ribosomes are composed of almost an equal amount of RNA and protein hence they are ribonucleoprotein particles.
33.Which RNA is present in ribosome?
The RNA present in ribosome is called ribosomal RNA.
34.Whar are subunits of eukaryotic ribosomes?
Each eukaryotic ribosomes consists of two subunits.The larger subunit sediments at 60S while smaller subunit sediments at 40S.
35.What is the function of golgi complex or apparatus?
Golgi apparatus is concerned with cell secretion.
36.Who isolated lysosomes?
Lysosomes were isolated as separate components for the first time by De Duve.
37.Which organisms have centrioles?
Animal cells and the cells of some microorganisms and lower plants contain two centrioles near the exterior surface of the nucleus.
38.What is the function of chloroplasts?
The chloroplasts are organelles specializing in photosynthesis.
39.How many types cells are divided into?
Biologists have divided cell into two types prokaryotic and eukaryotic.
40.What is the major difference eukaryotes and prokaryotes?
Eukaryotes have a very well defined nucleus in which nuclear material is enclosed in double nuclear membrane.In prokaryotic cells the genetic material DNA is without any membrane covering.
41.What is the shape and size of chloroplasts?
Chloroplasts vary in their shape and size with a diameter of about 4-6um.
42.What are thylakoids?
Thylakoids are the flattened vesicles which arrange themselves to form grana and intergrana.
43.When nucleus of the cell is visible?
Nucleus is only visible when the cell is in non-dividing stage.
44.When is the composition of primary wall?
The primary wall is composed of cellulose and some deposition of pectin and hemicelluloses.
45. With which enzymes peroxisomes are enriched?
Peroxisomes are enriched with some oxidative enzymes such as peroxidase catalase glycolic acid axidase and some other enzymes.
46.How does the central atom of chlorophyll and haem differ?
Chlorophyll has Mg++ while haem has Fe++ as the central atom.
47.What do you mean by multinucleate cells?
Generally the cells with more than two nuclei are called multimucleate.
48.What is the function of muscle nerve and gland cells?
Muscle cells contract and relax.Nerve cells transmit impulses.Gland cells secrete their hormones.
49.What is the function of red blood and stomach cells?
Red blood cells oxygen .Some stomach cells secrete gastic juice.
50.What is the function of xylem and phloem?
Xylem cells conduct water and mineral salts from soil to the aerial parts of the plant while phleom cells transport food.
What is nucleoid?

In prokaryotic cell nucleic material is usually coiled and concentrated in a region of the cell is called nucleoid.

What is active transport?

It is the process in which movement of molecules from lower concentration to the higher concentration by energy.

What is pinocytosis?

It is the process of taking fluid in large amount. When the living cells take up fluid vesicles and it is also called as cell drinking.

What is meant by nucleoplasm?

The nucleus is filled with protein rich substances called nucleoplasm.

Define chromatids?

Each chromosome consists of two threads like structures called chromatids.

What is cytosol?

Cytoplasm consists of a fluid matrix called cytosol in which the organelles are found.

What is fluid mosaic model of DNA?

Singer and Nicholson proposed working model of plasma membrane called fluid mosaic model.

What are the main functions of cell membrane?

The main functions of cell membrane are protection of protoplasm, regulation of flow of solutes and material across it due to its selective permeability.

Define Vacules?

Vacules are non-Protoplasmicliquid filled cavities surrounded by tonoplast.

How many components are of plasma membrane?

There are two components of plasma membrane, phospholipids and protein.

What is cyclosis?

Cytoplam shows a movement in circular manner called cyclosis.

What is cytoskeleton?

The network of fibrous proteins give three dimensional structure to cell called cytoskeleton.

Define microfilaments?

Cytoplasm consists of a mass of tiny filaments are called microfilaments.

Define osmosis?

Movement of solvent molecules from the region higher concentration to the region of lower concentration in the presence of a semi permeable membrane is called osmosis.

What is chromatin network?

A network of fine loosely connected threads in the nucleoplasm is called chromatin network.

What is fractionation?

It is the isolation of cellular component by breaking and spinning the cell.

What are proplastides?

Proplastides are colorless, immature plastids found in meristematic tissues, where division of cells takes place.

What is the function of microtubules?

Microtubules help in the storage of cellulose, movement of chromosomes during cell division, movement of organelles within cytoplasm and movement of cilia and flagella.

What are plastids?

Plastids are found in plant cells as a chemical synthesizers and storage bodies.

What is the function of microfilaments?

They help in the internal motion of Cells.

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