11th Class Biology Chapter 2 Biological Molecules Short Questions Answer

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11th Class Biology Chapter 2 Biological Molecules Short Questions Answer

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1.Difine biochemistry?
Biochemistry is a branch of Biology,which deals with the study of chemical components and the chemical processes in living organisms.
2.Differentiate between Anabolic and catabolic reactions?
Those reactions in which simpler substances are combined to form complex subsrances are called anabolic reactions.Anabolic reactions need energy.Energy is released by the break down of complex molecules into simpler ones such reactions are called catabolic reactions.
3.What are Covalent bonds?
Covalent bonds result when two or more atoms complete their electron shells by sharing electrons.
4.What is primary structure of Protein?
The primary structure is composed of the number and sequence of amino acids in a protein molecule.
5.What is Secondary strycture of protein?
A polypeptide chain that shows folding due to the formation of hydrogen bonds and forms a stabilized structure is know as secondary structure of protein.
6.What is Tertiary structure of protein?
Usually a polypeptide chain bends and folds upon itself forming a globular shape.This is the tertiary structre of proteins.
7.What is Quaternary strcture of protein?
In many highly complex proteins polypeptide tertiary chains are aggregated and held together by hydrophobic interactions,hydrogen and ionic bonds.This specific arrangement is the quaternary structure.
8.Define Specific heat capacity?
The specific heat capacity is defined as the number of calories required to raise the temperature of 1g of water form 15 to 16ᵒC(or by 1ᵒC).
9.Why these scientists are famous for:
• Chargaff. In 1951 Erwin Chargaff provided data about the ratios of different bases present in DNA molecule.This data suggested that adenine and thymine are equal in ratio and so are guanine and cytosine. • Wilkins & Franklin Maurice wilkins and Rosalind Franklin used the technique of X-ray diffraction to determine the structure of DNA. • Watson and Crick James D.Watson and Francis Crick built the scale model of DNA.
10.What are the most important organic compounds in living organisms?
Most important organic compounds in living organisms are carbohydrates, proteins,lipid and nucleic acids.
11.What is metabolism?
All the chemical reactions taking place withina cell are collectively and catabolism.
12.What is the basic element of organic compounds?
Carbon is the basic element of organic compounds.
13.What carbon occupies the central position in the skeleton of life?
Carbon occupies the central position in the skeleton of life due ti its unique properties: • Carbon is tetravalent. • It forms stable chains or rings. • C-H bond is potential source of energy. • It proved stability to complex molecules. • It forms peptide bonds with nitrogen.
14.What is meduim of life?
Water is the medium of life.It is the most abundant compound in all organisms.It varies from 65 to 89 percent in different organisms.
`15.What is the percentage of water in human tissues?
Humen tissues contain about 20 per cent water in bone cells and 85 per cent in brain cells.
16.Why water is an excellent solvent for polar substances?
Water is an excellent solvent for polar substances due to its polarity.
17.Nonpolar organic molecules such as fats are insoluble in water.What is the advantage of this fact?
They help to maintain membranes which make compartments in the cell.
18.What is heat of vaporization?
Heat of vaporization is expressed as calories absorbed per gram water vaporized.The specific heat of vaporization of water is 574 Kcal/Kg.
19.What is the advantage of heat of vaporization?
Heat of vaporization plays an important role in the regulation of heat produced by oxidation.It also provides cooling effect to plant when water is transpired or to animals when water is respired.
20.What is the concentration of each of H+ and OH ions in pure water at 25ᵒC?
At 25ᵒC the concentration of each of H+ and OH ions in pure water is 10-7 mole/litre.
21.How water protects as an effective lubricant?
Water is effective lubricant that provides protection against damage resulting from friction.For example tears protect the surface of eye from the rubbing of eyelids.Water also forms a fluid cushion around organs that helps to protect them from trauma(Shock damage).
22.What is the general formula of carbohydrates?
Chemically carbohydrates are defined as polyhdroxy aldehydes or ketones or complex substances which on hydrolysis yield polyhydroxy aldehyde or ketone subunits.
23.Hoe carbohydrates are chemically defined?
Chemically carbohydrates are deffined as polydroxy aldehydes or ketones or complex substances which on hydrolysis yield polyhydroxy aldehyde or ketone subunits.
24.What are the major clases or groups of carbohydrates?
Carbohydrates are classified into three groups. • Monosaccharides • Oligosaccharides • Polysaccharides
25.Differentiate between glycosidic and peptide bonds?
A glycosidic bond is formed between two monosaccharides.It is a covalent bond linking carbon of one monosaccharide with the oxygen of the other (C-O).On the other hand a peptide bond is formed between two omino acide to make a protein.In this case it is a covalent bond between carbon of carboxyl group of one amine acide and nitrogen of amino group of other amino acid (C-N).
26.What are monosaccharides found in nature?
In nature monosaccharides with 3 to 7 carbon atoms are found.They are called trioses (3C),tetroses(4C),pentoses(5C),hexoses(6C),and heptoses (7C).They have general fomula(CH2O).
27.What trioses are intermediates in respiration and photosynthesis?
Glyceraldehyde and dihydroxyacetone both trioses (C3H6O3)are intermediates in respiration and photosynthesis.
28.What are tetroses?
Tetroses are monosaccharides.They are rare in nature and occur in some bacteria.
29.What are most common monosaccharides?
Pentoses and hexoses are most common.
30.What is the most important hexose from the biological point of view?
From the biological point of view the most important hexose is glucose.Its is an aldose sugar.
31.Differentiate between aldo-sugars and keto sugars?
The sugar with aldehyde group is called aldo-sugar and with the keto group as keto-sugar.
32.What does happen to monosaccharides when in solution?
Most of the monosaccharides from a ring structure when in solution.For example ribose will form a five cornered ring know as ribofuranose whereas glucose will form six cornered ring know as glucopyyranose.
33.Where glucose is present in free state?
In free state glucose is present in all fruits being abundant in grapes figs and date.
34.What is normally the concentration of gluccse in our blood?
Our bloof normally contains 0.08% glucose.
35.Where is glucose found in combined form?.Where is it naturally produced?
In combined form it is found is many disaccharides and polysaccharides.Starch cellulose and glycogen yield glucose on complete hydrolysis.Glusose is naturally produced in green plants which take carbon dioxide from the air and water from the soil to synthesize glucose.
36.Why the process of glucose synthesis by green plants is called photosynthesis?
Energy is consumed is this process which is provided by sunlight.This is why the process is called photosynthesis.
37.How much solar energy s used in the synthesis of 10g glucose and in which form it is stored?
It is noteworthy that for the synthesis of 10g of glucose 717.6 kcal molecules as chemical energy.
38.What do you know about the taste of carbohydrates?
The monosaccharides are sweet in taste oligosaccharides are less sweet while polysaccharides are tasteless.
39.What do you know about the solubility of carbohydrates?
Monosaccharides are soluble in water oligosaccharides less soluble while polysaccharides are only sparingly soluble in water.
40.What are physiologically important disaccharides?
Physiologically important disaccharides are maltose sucrose and lactose.
41.What is sucrose?
Sucrose is the most familiar disaccharide which on hydrolysis yields glucose and fructose both of which are reducing sugars.Its molecular formula is C12H22O11.
42.What is the effect of hydrolysis on oligosaccharides?
On hydrolysis oligosaccharides yield from two to ten monosaccharides.The ones yielding two monosaccharides are known as disaccharides.Those yielding three are known as trisaccharides and so on.
43.What are some biologically important polysaccharides?
Some biologically important polysaccharides are starch glycogen cellulose dextrins agar pectin and chitin
44.Where starch is found?
It is found in fruits grains seeds and tubers.
45.What does happen to starch cellulose and glycogen on complete hydrolysis?
Starch cellulose and glycogen yield glucose on complete hydrolysis.
46.How many types of starch are there?
Starches are of two types amylose and amylopectin.
47.Differentiate between amylase and amylopectin starches?
Amylose starches have unbranched chains of glucose and are soluble in hot water.Amylopectin starches have branched chains and are insoluble in hot or cold water.
48.What colour are given by starch glycogen and cellulose with iodine?
Starches give blue colour with iodine.Glycogen gives red colour with iodine.Cellulose gives no colour with iodine.
49.why glycogen is called animal starch?
It is called animal starch because it is the chief form of carbohydrate stored in animal body.It is found abundantly in liver and muscles though found in all animal cells.
50.Which is the most abundant carbohydrate in nature.Where is it found in pure form?
Cellulose is the most abundant carbohydrate in nature.Cotton is the pure form of cellulose.
Define amino acid?

These are small building block molecules that make up protein.

Define triglycerides?

It is a lipid compound formed from one glycerol molecule and three fatty acid molecules.

Define oligosaccharides?

It is carbohydrate molecule which yields from 2 to 10 monosaccharide molecules on hydrolysis.

Define nucleotides?

It is the building block of nucleic acid made up of a nitrogen containing base, a five carbon sugar and phosphate group.

Define secondary proteins?

Spirally coiled polypeptide chain of amino acids is called secondary proteins.

Define terpenoids?

Larger lipids compounds which are made up of simple repeating is oprenoid units are called terpenoids.

Name the carbohydrates suitable as food for man?

Glucose, fructose and galactose.

What is the percentage of water in brain cells of man?

Brain cells of man contains 85 percent water.

What is the function of mRNA?

The messenger RNA takes the genetic message from the nucleus to the ribosomes in the cytoplasm to form a particular protein.

What is meant by saturated acyglycerol?

They do not contain any double bond between carbon atom and they are solid at ordinary temperature mostly found in animals.

What is dextrin?

The oligosaccharides which contain 3 to 10 monosaccharide are commonly known as dextrin.

Name the four main types of biological molecules?

(1) carbohydrates (2) Lipids (3) Protein (4) Nucleic acid

What are biochemical?

The chemical compounds of living organisms are called biochemical and these are mainly composed of six elements carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, nitrogen, phosphorus and sulphur these substances form the 98% of the biochemical.

Define buffer?

It is a substance that binds hydrogen ion when concentration of H⁺ are higher and releases hydrogen ions when concentration of H⁺ are low.

How many structures of protein are found?

There are four basic structures of protein are found i-e primary, secondary, tertiary and quaternary.

What is condensation?

The joining of two monomers is called condensation.

What is meant by organic molecules?

Molecules which contains carbon as basic element and bounded hydrogen covalently are known as organic molecules.

What is hydrolysis?

The process in which macromolecules are broken down into smaller subunits by the addition of water is known as hydrolysis.

Water is excellent solvent for polar substances. Justify this statement.

Due to its polarity, water is an excellent solvent for polar substances. Ionic substances when dissolves in water, dissociate into positive and negative ions. Non-ionic substances having charged groups in their molecules are dispersed in water. Almost all the reactions in cell occur in aqueous media.

What is the function of non-polar substances?

Non-polar organic molecules such as fats, are insoluble in water and help to maintain membranes which make compartments in the cell.

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