11th Class Biology Chapter 10 Kingdom Animalia Short Question Answers

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11th Class Biology Chapter 10 Kingdom Animalia Short Question Answers Below

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1.Why Echinoderms are placed at the top of list of invertebrate phyla?
This is because there are a number of striking resemblance between the echinoderms and chordates. For example: i) There is radial cleavage during the development of embryos. ii)The blastopore forms the anus. iii) There are certain common biochemical peculiarities among echinoderms and chordates.
2. What do you mean by infestation and disinfestations?
Infestation means development and abundance of pathogens parasites within the body of an organism while disinfestations means removal of pathogens/ parasites by treatment with drugs.
3.What are coral reefs?
Many colonial coelenterates such as corals produce a hard exoskeleton formed of calcium carbonate (CaCO3). It is secreted by epidermal cells that take lime from sea water. This skeleton of coral is responsible for formation of small coral island or large coral reefs.
4. Where are coral reefs found?
Coral reefs are found in the coastal water of Florida, West indies, East coast of Africa, Australia and island of coral sea.
5. What is polymorphism? Also give examples?
The occurrence of structurally and functionally more than two different types of individuals, called the zooids within the same organism is called polymorphism e.g., Obelia and Physalia show polymorphism.
6. What is spiral and determinate cleavage?
A spiral and determinate cleavage is that in which the lines or planes of cleavage are not symmetrical between poles instead these are diagonal to the polar axis of polarity and all the blastomeres have determined role to play in the formation of embryo. The fat of each blastomere is foretold (predicated).
7. What is radial and indeterminate cleavage ?
In radial and indeterminate cleavage the planes of cleavage are symmetrical to the polar axis and produce tiers (story) of cells on top to each other and the fat of each blastromer is not pre- determined. In some anyone blastomere can produce a complete embryo.
8. What is the main difference between diploblastic and triploblastic organisms?
The body of diploblastic animals consists of two layers of cells, endoderm. There is a jelly like messenchyme or mesoglea, between the two layers, which in most cases in non-cellular. The body of triploblastic animals is made of three layers ectoderm, mesoderm and endoderm.
9. Differentiate between acoelomata , pseudoceolomata and coelomate?
a). Acoelomata: The animals which do not have a baby cavity have grouped under acoelomata e.g. Porifera etc. b). Pseudocoelomata: The animals which have a false coelom, the pseudocoele, have been grouped under pseudocoelomata e.g., Nematoda in which blastocoel persists throughout the life. C) Coelomata: The animals which have a true coelom have been grounded under coelomata e.g. Annelida to Chordata all the animals possess coelom.
10. What do you understand by stream- lined body?
A body that provides least resistance to air or water is known as stream- lined body.
11. Why reptiles become extinct?
Reptiles flourished throughout Mesozoic period (225-65 million years). The climate which had been suitable for reptiles in that period, became less favorable to them in tertiary period. So most of them became extinct.
12. Name the bird in which both ovaries and oviducts are present?
13. What is marsupium?
The abdominal pouch present in prototherians is called marsupium.
14. Name the bonus present in external ear or pinna of mammals?
External ear or pinna has a chain of three bones i.e. lncus. Malleus and Stapes.
15. What is mantel?
In echinoderms, the body is covered by a glandular epithelial envelope called mantel which secretes calcareous shell.
16. What type of animals are included in kingdom Animalia?
Kingdom animalia consists of all animals which are multicellular, diploid, eukaryotic, heterotrophic and ingest nutrient and develop from two different haploid gametes a large egg and a smaller sperm.
17. What is grade Radiata?
This is the condition or organization in which the parts of the body are arranged around a central axis in such a way that any plane passing through the central axis divides the animal in halves that are almost mirror image of each other e.g. as in cnidaria (coelenterate).
18. Differentiate between Metazoa Protozoa?
In traditional two- kingdom systems, the multicellular animals were referred to broadly as metazoe to distinguish them from one-called animals, the protozoa.
19. What are characteristics of Proterostomia or Protisomes?
1. Cleavage or division of the zygote is spiral and determinate.
2. During development process the mouth in these animals arises from the blastopore or from its anterior margin
3. Coelom or body cavity is formed by the splitting of mesoderm (schizocoelous)
4. Mesoderm is derived from cell on lip of the blastopore.
20. What animal phyla are included in proterostomia?
The series proterostomia includes animals belonging to phyla Aschelminthes (Nematoda), Annelids, Mollusca and Arthropoda.
21. What are characteristics of Deuterostomia or Deuterostomes?
1.Cleavages is radial and indeterminate.
2. During embryonic development mouth is formed at some distance anterior to the blastopore and blastopore form the anus.
3.Coelom is developed as an outpouching of archenterons (enterocoelous).
4. Mesoderm is derived from wall of developing gut (Archenterons).
22. What animal phyla are include in deuterostomia?
The series deuterostomia includes animals belonging to phyla Echinodermata, Hemichordata and Chordata.
23. Differentiate between sac-like and tube-type digestive system?
There is only one cavity in the body called gastro vascular cavity which has only mouth which serves for the entry of food and water and also for the removal of wastes along with water. This is known as sac like digestive system. The digestive system is of tube type i.e. having mouth at the antherior end and the anus at the posterior end.
24. Why Pseudocoelum is not homologous to true coelom?
i) It is not lined by coelomic epithelium. ii) It has no relation with the reproduvtive and excretory organs. iii) It develops from the blastocoels of the embryo. iv) It is bounded externally by the muscles and internally by the cuticle of the intestine.
25. What is coelom?
Coelom is cavity present between the body wall and the alimentary canal and is lined by mesoderm splits into outer parietal layer and inner visceral layer. The parietal layers lines the body wall and the visceral layer covers the alimentary canal and the cavity between them is the true coelom.
26. What is grade bilateria?
These animals show bilateral symmetry. An animal where the right side is approximately the same as the lift side and where there is a distinct anterior end is called bilateral symmetry. It means the animal can be divided into two equal parts by an imaginary line only in one plane.
27. Differentiate between parazoa and Eumetazoa?
The simplest of the animals belong to Subkingdom Parazoa (phylum Porifera). These animals lack tissues organized into organs and have indeterminate shape, and are asymmetrical. While organs and organ systems. These include radially symmetrical animals and bilaterally symmetrical animals.
28.Which organs and system arise from ectoderm, mesoderm and endoderm?
The system such as integumentary and nervous develop from ectoderm. Mesodem gives rise to muscular, skeletal and reproductive systems. Endoderm forms the lining of digestive tract and forms other glands of digestive system, such as liver.
29. What type of body wall do sponges have?
In most sponges the body wall is formed of an outer layer, pinacoderm, made up of pinacocytes: and an inner layer choanoderm made up of collared flagellated cells called choanocytes. Between these two layers is present gelatinous mesenchyme which may cotain amoeboid cells spicules or sponging fibres.
30. What is the difference between ostia and osculum?
Numerous pores are present in the body wall of sponges. The pores through which water enters the body are called Ostia, and pore through which the water leaves the body is known as Osculum (main opening).
31. What is Spongocoel?
There is a single cavity inside the body of sponges, the spongocoel. In most sponges the spongocoel may be dividedinto flagellated chambers or canals, lined by flagellated choanocytes.
32. What is the food of sponges?
The food of sponges includes small animals, zooplankton and plants, phytoplankton which constitute about 20%of their food. 80% of their food consists of detrital organic particles.
33. How sponges ingest food and diffuse out wastes?
The food enters the spongocoel through Osita. The food is ingested by the flagellated cells, the choanocytes. The wastes products either diffuse out of the sponge directly through the body wall or flow out through osculum.
34. What type of skeleton is present in sponges or poriferans?
The skeleton is in the form of variously shaped needle-like structures called spicules. These may be calcareous or siliceous. The bath sponges has a skeleton of spongin fibres. The skeleton is present among pinacocytes and provide support. Spicules are also present around osculum and ostia.
35. How asexual reproduction occurs in sponges?
The asexual reproduction in sponges is by buding. The buds may be external buds are called gemmules. Both types of buds develop into sponges.
36. Give examples of phylum porifera?
Sycon, Leucosolenia, Euplectella and Spongilla.
37. How sexual reproduction occurs in sponges?
The sponges are mostly hermaphrodite, mostly protandrous, i.e., male sex cells develop first. Sperms are released in water and are carried to the egg by amoeboid cells. The embryonic development includes blastula and travel stages.
38. What is importance of sponges?
The skelton of sponges are mostly hermaphrodite, mostly protandrous , i.e., male sex cells develop first. Sperms are released in water and are carried to the egg by amoeboid cells. Fertilisation occurs in mesenchyme and zygot is formed. The embryonic development includes blastula and larval stages.
39. Why name Cnidaria has been given to the coelenterates?
The name cnidaria has been given to this group of animals due to the presence of special cells called cnidocytes. These cells given rise to nematocysts, the stinging cells.
40. Why cavity of cnidarians is called gastrovascular cavity?
In these animals there is only one cavity which serves as digestive as well as body cavity so it is called gastrovascular cavity or enteron. It opens to the outside by only one opening the mouth.
41. What is mesoglea?
It is a jelly-like layer found between ectoderm and endoderm of diploblastic animals such as cnidarians (coelenterates). It is non-cellular.
42. Differentiate between polyps and medusae?
Cnidarians are found in two basic forms: the polyps and the medusa. Polyps are cylindrical animals, which in most cases are nutritive in function, hence named as gastrozoid. The medusa isumbrella like in form. These are free swimming. The medusa is involved in sexual reproductions as they have gonads.
43. What are tentacles?
The mouth of coelenterates is surrounded by a series of tentacles. These bear stinging cell called nematocysts. These are organs of defence and offence.
44. What is food of coelenterates ? How is it obtained?
The coelenterates are carnivores and feed upon small organisms which come into contact with them. These organism are immobilized by nematocysts and taken into the digestive cavity as food where they are digested and then distributed by diffusion.
45. What is Zooids?
In coelenterates, there occur structurally and functionally two or more than two different types of individuals called zooids within the same organism. For examples, Obelia has three types of zooids such as gastrozooids, gonozoids and medusa.
46. What are gastrozooids, gonozooids, and blastostyle?
Gastrozooids are feeding zooids of Obelia, Gonozooids are asexually reproducing zooids, while blastoystyle is a kind of zooid in Obelia which gives rise to indivisual zooids called medusa by asexual method.
47. Give examples of coelenterates?
Hydra, Obelia, Aurelia (jelly fish), Actinia (sea anemones) and Madrepora.
48. What is pseudocoelom ?
In aschelminthes, the space between the body wall and the digestive tube is called pseudocoelom. Pseudocoelom develops from the blastocoels of the blastula or embryo.
49. What are cnidocytes?
The cnidocytes are special cells found in coelenterates due to which they are also called Cnidaria. The cnidocytes have namatocytes, the stinging cells which can paralyze the prey.
50. What is Branchioceranthus?
Branchioceranthus, is a hydrozoan polyp that may reach two matter in length.
What is flame cell?

It is cup shaped cell with a bunch of cilia which work in its lumen. It is concerned with excretion. Flame cells are usually connected together by canals which ultimately open to the exterior of the animal.

What are tetrapods?

All the animals having four limbs are called tetrapod’s. This super class is divided into following classes:

  1. Class Amphibia
  2. Class Aves
  3. Class Reptilia
  4. Class Mammalia
Name the glass sponge of Antarctica which is more than meter tall?

Its name Scolymastra joubini.

What are nematocytes?

The nematocytes are the organs of offense and defense in the coelenterates.

Quote examples of jawless fishes?

These are lampreys and hagfishes.

Give example of a legless amphibian?

It is the Caecilian.

How many aortic arches are formed in birds and mammals?

Only a single aortic arch is formed, right in birds and left in mammals.

Name a phylum which is exclusively marine?

It is phylum Echinodermata and Oxidaria.

How do annelids respire?

The annelids respire through skin.

State an example of a free living flat worm?

Planaria is a free living flat worm.

What is hydrostatic skeleton?

Arrangement in animal or organ conferring rigidity by distension with fluid as movement of Oligochaeta, Polychaeta and Nematoda.

What is book lung?

It is respiratory organ of some air breathing arachnids, consisting of projections containing blood and arranged like leaves of a book in a depression of body wall.

Where is the food masticated in birds?

The food in birds is masticated in a thick muscular stricture known as the gizzard.

Name the protective embryonic membranes of reptiles?

These are the amnion, allantois and chorion.

Distinguish oviparous animals from viviparous ones?

The animals which lay eggs are called oviparous e.g., birds while those which give birth to the young ones are known as viviparous. E.g., mammals.

The teeth of some mammal’s asmon are known in two sets. Name them?

These are deciduous or milk set and the permanent teeth.

In which geological period did the mammals become dominant?

The mammals became dominant in Cenozoic period.

How is malaria spread?

Malaria is spread by the bite of the female Anopheles mosquito.

Differentiate between An amniotes and Amniotes?

An amniotes: The animals without fetal membrane for exp Cyclostomata, Chondrichthyes, Osteichthyes and Amphibia known as anamniotes.

Amniotes: The animals with fetal membranes for exp reptilian, aves and mammals are called amniotes.

Name the Intermediate host in the life cycle of tapeworm?

It is pig or cattle.

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  1. Thats not enough. Please give some more and appropriate answers of some question that are important from point of view of board examination. Few questions are so badly answered that they aren’t capable of taking 2 marks in short question.

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