11th Class Biology Chapter 1 Biology And Its Major Fields of Specialization Short Questions Answer

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11th Class Biology Chapter 1 Biology And Its Major Fields of Specialization Short Questions Answer

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1.What is biology?
Biology is tha study of living things.
2.What are the literal meanings of biology?
The literal meanings of biology are tha study of life.
3.From where the word biology has derived?
The word biology has been derived from two Greek words: ‘bios’meaning life and logos meaning reasoning thought etc.
4.Define the following?(a) Anatom(b) Physiolog (c) Palaeobotany (d) Embryology (e) Parasitology
(A) Anatomy: The study of internal gross structure is called Anatomy. (B) Physiology: The study of function of different parts of plants or animals is called Physiology. (C) Palaeobotany: The study of fossils of plants is called palaeobotany. (D) Embryology: The study of the development of an organism from a fertilized egg ir zygote is called Embryology (E) Parasitology: This is the branch of biology which deals with the study of parasites.The structure mode of transmisson life histories and host parasite relationships are studied in parasitology.
5.What is tha human biology?
Human biology:It deals with the study of man.This includes structure, function, histology, anatomy,morphology, evolaution,genetics,cell biology and ecological studies of human being.
6.What are micromolecules?
The molecules with low moleclar weight may be called micromolecules e.g.,CO2,H2O etc.
7.Differentiate between population and communtiy?
A population is a group of organisms of the same species located in the same place at the same time while a community consists of populations of different species (plants and animals) living in the same habitat at the same time.
8.Differentiate between deductive and inductive reasoning?
: Deductive reasoning is the reasoning general to the specific e.g. if we accept that all birds have wings ,and that sparrows are birds, then we conclude that sparrows have wings. The inductive reasoning from specific to general e.g., if we know that sparrows have wings and are birds,and we know that eagle, parrot,hawk,crow,are birds; then we conclude that all birds have wings.
9.Why it is difficult to define life in biology?
There are certain aspects of life that lie beyond the scope of the science of biology like what is the meaning of life.And why should there be life.These are the questions not usually taken up by the biologists and are left to philosophers and theologians.The biologists manily deal with matters of relating to how life works.
10.Why biology is divided into several branches?
The science of biology is a very wide field of study and large amount of information are available in it.Therfore for our convenience cf understanding and studying biology it is divided into a number of branches.
11.What is morphology?
The study of form and structure of living things is called morphology.
12.What does the word structure represent?
The word structure represent the parts of organisams that can be observed with naked eye or with a microscope.
13.Define histology?
The microscopic study of tissues is called histology.
14.What is cell biology?
The study of structure and function of cells is called cell biology or cytology.
15.What is palaeontology?
:The study of fossils and their relationships to the evolution of life on earth is palaeontology.
16.What are fossils?
The remains of living organisms or their impressions preserved in the rocks are called fossils.
17.Define palaeozoology?
The study of fossils of animals is called palaeozoology.
18.What is genetics?
The study of hereditary characters transmitted from the parents to the offspring is called genetics.
19.Difine Taxonomy?
The branch of biology that deals with naming and classification is called Texonomy.
20.What is classification?
Classification is the arrangements of animals and plants into groups and subgroups on the basis of similarities.
21.What is zoogeography?
The study of distribution of organisms in nature is called zoogeography.
22.Define Molecular Biology?
Molecular biology is a branch of biology which deals with the structure of organisms,their cells and their organelles at molecular level.
23.Define Environment Biology?
Environment Biology or ecology is the study of organisms in relation to their environments. This includes interaction between the organism and their inorganic and organic environment.
24.What is Microbiology?
This is the study of micro-organism which inculde Bacteria,Viruses,Protozoa and microscopic algae and fungi.
25.What is Freshwarer Biology?
This branch of biology deals with the organisms living in freshwater bodies i.e.,rivers, lakes ets,and physical and chemical parameters of the water bodies.
26.What is Marine Biology?
This is the study of life in seas and oceans.This includes the study of the marine life and the physical and chemical characteristics of the sea acting as factors for marine life.
27.Define social Biology?
This is the branch of biology which deals with the study of social behaviour and communal life of human being.
28.Define Biotechnology?
It deals with the use of living organisms,system or process in manufacturing and service industries.
29.What are bioelements?
The elements which are present in living organisms are called bioelements.
30.Which six bioelements account for 99% of the totel mass of hyman body?
These are oxygen(65%),carbon(18%),hydrogen(10%),nitrogen (3%),calcium(2%),and phosphorus(1%).
31.How many chemical elements are used in forming the chemical compounds of living organisms?
32.How many chemical elements are naturally occurring?
33.Except six commonest bioelements,name the other bioelements founds in living organisms and also show their percentage?
These include potassium (0.35%),sulphur (0.25%),chlorine(0.15%),sodium(0.15%),magnesium(0.05%),iron(0.004%),copper(trace),manganese(trace),Zine(trace),and iodine(trace).
34.What are atoms and subatomic particles?
An atom is the smallest possible of an elements that retains that element’s properties.Physicists have split the atom into more then a hundred types of particles called subatomic particles protons,electrons,neutrons etc.
35.What are the most common atoms found in biological molecules?
Hydrogen,carbon,oxygen,nitrogen,phosphorus and sulphur.
36.Differentiate between micromolecules and macromolecules?
The molecules with low molecular weight may be called micromolecules e.g. CO2, H2O etc. While the molecules with large molecular weights are said to be macromolecules e.g. sugars,protents etc.
37.Differentiate between organic and inorganic molecules?
An organic molecule is any molecule containing both carbon and hydrogen.Inorganic molecules do not include carbon and hydrogen together in a molecule.
38.What are some most important and abundant arganic molecules in organisms?
These are Glucose,Amino acids,Fatty,Glycerol,Nucleotides like ATP,ADP,AMP,etc.
39.Name different levels of biological orgnization?
• Subatomic and atomic levels • Molecular level • Organelles and cell level • Tissue level • Organ and system level • Individual level • Population level • Community level
40.Name dif ferent attributes of population?
Some of the attributes of population are gene frequency gene flow age distribution population density population pressure etc.
41.Define tissues?
In multicellular animals and plants the groups of similar cells are organized into loose sheets or bundles performing similar functions;these are called tissues.
42.What is biome?
A biome is a large regional community primarily determined by climate.It has been found that the major types of plants determine the other kinds of plants and animals.These biomes have therefore been named after the type of major plants or major features of the ecosystem.
43.What is biodiversity?
The number and variety of species in a place in a particular time is called biodivrsity
44.How many species of organisms are currently know to science?
Nearly 2,500,000 species.
45.What do you understand by phyletic lineage?
Phyletic lineage means studying the ancestry of organisms by considering their evolutionary history or history of the past.(Phyletic-relating to the hereditary descent of a species or its development over time Lineage-ancestry or family tree).
46.What are the percentges of different groups of organisms among the know species of organisms?
More than half of the know species of organisms are insect (53.1%)and another 17.6% are vascular plants.Animals other than insect are 19.9%(281,000species) and 9.4% are fungi algae protozoa and various other prokaryotes.
47.What is a Hypothesis?
A statement made on the basis of experience and background Knowladge of the events is called a hypothesis.
48.Define deduction.
A logical consequence of a hypothesis is called deduction.
49.How a theory is made or what is a theory?
A theory is made from a hypotheses which has been tested by many experiments.
50.What is a scientific law?
If a theory survives sceptical (disvelieving) approach of other scientists and continues to be supported by experimental evidences it becomes a scientific law.Examples of biological laws are Hardy-Weinberg laws and Mendel’s law of inheritance.
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