10th Class Chemistry Chapter 7 Water Short Question Answer

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10th Class Chemistry Chapter 7 Water Short Question Answer

Give two advantages of Solvay’s process?

1: Carbon dioxide and ammonia are recovered and reused
2: Sodium carbonate of very high purity is obtained

Define blister copper?

The molten matte is shifted from converter to sand molds and is allowed to cool. The dissolved gasses escape out forming blister on the surface of the sold copper. It is called blister copper. It is 98% pure copper.

Give names of raw material and used in Solvay’s process?

The raw material are
1: Brine (NaCl)
2: Limestone (CaCO₃)
3: Ammonia gas (NH₃)

Name two ores of copper?

Copper glance Cu₂S
Chalcopyrite CuFeS₂

Define gangue?

The earthly and other impurities associated with minerals are called gangue.

Define anode mud?

In the process of refining of metal the impurities like gold and silver settle down at the bottom of electrolyte tank called anode mud.

Give names of raw material used in Urea manufacturing?

1: Ammonia (NH₃)
2: Carbon dioxide (CO₂)

Define principle of froth flotation?

Froth flotation is based on the wetting characteristics of the ore and gangue particles with oil and water respectively.

ICI stand for what?

Imperial chemical industries.

Define principle of solvay's process?

Principle of solvay’s process lies in low solubility of sodium bicarbonate at low temperature i-e 15℃When CO₂ is passed through an ammoniac solution of NaCl called brine only NaHCO₃ precipitate.

Define smelting.

It is further heating of roasted ore with sand flux and coke in the presence of excess of air.

Give use of fuel oil?

Ans: It is used in ships and industries to heat boilers and furnaces.

Name fraction of petroleum?

1: Petroleum gas
2: Petroleum ether
3: Gasoline
4: Kerosene oil
5: Diesel oil
6: Fuel oil

Give use of kerosene oil?

Used as domestic fuel, a special grade of it is used as jet fuel.

Describe preparation of ammonia by (Haber's Process)?

Ammonia is prepared by the Haber’s process. One volume of nitrogen (from air) and three volumes of hydrogen (obtained by passing methane and steam over heated nickel) is passed over iron catalyst at 450℃ and 200 atm pressure.

State urea formation?

When ammonium carbonate is evaporated with the help of steam. It dehydrates to form urea.

Fraction of residual oil?

Paraffin wax
Petroleum coke

Give the reaction of formation of ammonia in the process?

Ammonia is recovered in this tower from ammonium chloride solution produced in the carbonated tower and calcium hydroxide formed in lime kiln.

Define petroleum?

Petroleum means rock oil. It is a complex mixture of several gaseous, liquid and solid hydrocarbons having water, salts and earth particles with it.

What role play technology in the production of common chemicals?

Technology is considered a consequences of science and engineering. Common chemicals such as acids alkalies, salts, soaps, detergents etc. are being produced on commercial scale by chemists or chemical engineers since centuries. Technology began to influence human efforts to produce common chemicals since people began using different tools and machineries. Now it is because of use of technology that needs of people are being fulfilled. Use of technology has increased the production with improved quality of products.

Define refining?

Refining process is the separation of crude oil mixture into various useful fractions.

Define concentration process used in metallurgy of copper?

The process of removal of gangue from the ore is technically known as concentration and the purified ore is called the concentrate. Concentration of the crushed ore is carried out by the following methods
1: Gravity separation
2: Froth flotation process
3: Electromagnetic separation

What is function of fertilizers?

Fertilizers are used to make up the deficiency of nitrogen, phosphorus, etc., of the soil because of intensive cultivation of crops in the recent years.

Give use of petroleum ether?

Used as laboratory solvent and for dry cleaning purpose.

Describe principle of fractional distillation?

The principle of fractional distillation is based upon a separation of substances depending upon the boiling point.

Why is lime added in the smelting process?

Lime is used to separate the gangue in the form of slag.

In which field analytical chemist work?

Analytical chemists work in almost all fields of industry. They identify the materials, measures their quantities and control the quality of the products. They evaluate the efficiency and devise techniques to enhance the production.

How petroleum is extracted?

Petroleum is extracted by drilling holes into earth’s crust where the oil is formed.

What is difference between slag and matte?

Slag mixture of metals silicate and phosphates while cuprous while cuprous sulphide and ferrous sulphide form a mixture (Cu2S.FeS) .This molten mixture is called matte.

What is the percentage of nitrogen in urea?

It consists of 46.6% nitrogen.

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