10th Class Chemistry Chapter 4 Hydrocarbons Short Question Answer
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10th Class Chemistry Chapter 4 Hydrocarbons Short Question Answer
It is also used for artificial ripening of fruits.
Alkynes are also called acetylenes because of the name of the first member of the series id acetylene.
The organic compounds prepared from hydrocarbons are called petrochemicals. Some of the important petrochemicals are methyl alcohol, ethyl alcohol,formic acid, chloroform, carbon tetrachloride, ethylene, butadiene, benzene, toluene,etc.
Alkanes burn in the presence of excess of air or oxygen to produce a lot of heat, carbon dioxide and water. This reaction takes place in automobile combustion engines, domestic heaters and cooking appliances. It is highly exothermic reaction and because of it alkanes are used as fuel.
CH4 +2O2→ CO2 +2H2O +heat
Straight hydrocarbons: Straight chain compound are those in which carbon atoms are linked with each other through double and triple bonds forming a straight chain
Alkenes are reactive compounds because the electrons of the double bond are easily available for reaction.
Methane is the simplest alkane CH₄.
Hydrocarbons are regarded as the parent organic compounds since other organic compounds are considered to be derived from them by the replacement of one or more hydrogen atoms by other atoms or groups of atoms.
Dissolve about 0.2 if organic compound in water in a test tube .add 2-3 drops of alkanes KMnO₄ solution in it shake the disappearance of pink color indicates the presence of unsaturation in the organic compound.
Ethene is used for artificial ripening of fruits Use as a general anaesthetic for manufacture of polythene.
Ethane is used
1: for a artificial ripening of fruits
2: as a general anaesthetic
3: for manufacture of polythene: Polythene is a plastic material used in packaging, toys, bags etc. ethyl alcohol, ethylene, glycol, diethyl ether etc. ethylene oxide is used as a fumigant, ethylene glycol is used as an anti-freeze, diethyl ether and ethyl alcohol are used as solvents and
4: for making poisonous mustard gas which is used in chemical warfar.
Alkanes burn in the presence of excess of air or oxygen to produce a lot of heat, carbon dioxide and water. This reaction takes place in automobile combustion engines, domestic heaters and cooking appliances. It is highly exothermic reaction and because of it alkanes are used as fuel
CH4 + 2O2→ CO2 +2H2O +heat
Physicsl state: Alkanes form a homologous series of compounds and first four members of the series are gases. The alkanes consisting of C3 to C10 are liquid while the higher members are solids.
The hydrocarbons in which all the four valences of carbon atoms are fully satisfied (saturated) by single bonds with other carbon atoms and hydrogen atoms are called saturated hydrocarbons. Saturated hydrocarbons are also called alkanes. Thus, an alkane is a hydrocarbon in which the carbon atoms are connected by only single covalent bond (there are no double or triple covalent bonds in alkanes.Methane (CH4), Ethane (C2H6), propane (C3H8) and butane (C4H10) are all saturated hydrocarbons because they contain only carbon-carbon single bonds.
Hydrocarbons are used as raw materials for the preparation of a large variety of synthetic polymers Called plastics like polythene, polyester. These can be given any shape when soft and on hardening make a durable article to be sued in electric and sewages items and a lot of other household items in common life.
Halogenation in which one or more hydrogen atoms of a saturated compound are replaced with halogen atom is called halogenation reaction
CH4 + 2CL2 → C+4HCL
Propane and propane can be identified by bromide water test. Propane does not give bromine water test because it is saturated hydrocarbons. While propene decolorized the bromine water because propane is unsaturated hydrocarbon having double bond.
Hydrocarbons are used to prepare synthetic rubber, such as acetylene is used to prepare butadiene rubber used for making footwear, tyres and toys. Similarly, a good quality rubber neoprene is prepared from chloroprene.
When bromine water (a solution of bromine in water having red-brown color) is added to ethane in an inert solvent like carbon tetrachloride, its color is discharges at once.
Reduction means addition of nascent hydrogen. It is a replacement of a halogen atom with hydrogen atom in the presence of Zn metal and HCl.
Hydrocarbon are soluble in organic solvents because both of them are non-polar covalent compounds the principle of solubility is like dissolve like.
Long chain hydrocarbons obtained from petroleum are used to make synthetic detergents and washing powders. These detergents are sodium salts of alkyl hydrogen sulphate. These detergents have better and stronger cleaning properties than that of sofas. They can be used even in hard water.
The main constituent of fuels (coal, petroleum and natural gas) are hydrocarbons. When hydrocarbons are burnt in air the reaction is called combustion. It is highly exothermic reaction, i.e. it produces a lot of heat. The basic combustion reaction is
CH4 + 2O2? CO2 + 2H2O + heat.
We identify ethene from ethene by bromine water test, ethane does not give bromine water test while ethane decolourized the bromine water because ethene is saturated and ethane is unsaturated hydrocarbon.
Alkenes are known as olefins because first members of alkenes form oily products when react with halogens. Olefins means oil forming.
Inalkanes al the bonds of carbon atoms are single that means valences electrons of carbon atoms are saturated. Therefore they are least reactive that is the reason, alkanes are called parafins.
Ethene: Ethene is used for artificial ripening of fruits
Acetylene: Acetylene is used to prepare other chemicals, such as alcohols, acetaldehyde and acids
A reaction in which one or more hydrogen atoms of a saturated compounds are replaced with halogen atom is called halogenations.
A reaction in which one or more hydrogen atoms of a saturated compound are replaced with some other atoms (like halogen) is called a substitution reaction. Because alkanes has single bonds not double bonds so it do not add more atoms, it give substitution reaction.
Hydrocarbons are used to prepare synthetic fibers like nylon. Rayon polyesters these fibers have better qualities like greater strength good elasticity, resistance to wear and tear.